• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThe QMS (Quota Management System) was introduced in October 1986 and controls the overall catches for virtually all the main fish stocks found within New Zealand’s 200nm EEZ. In the QMS, a total catch limit is set at a sustainable level. Squid was introduced in 1987. The Fisheries Act of 1996 is another major law which amended the QMS, and which plays a role in this fishery.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorFisheries (Stock-specific)
Begin Date1986
ExplanationOctober 1986 (snapshot is when squid was introduced, 1987) 1983 Fisheries Act established the QMS.
End Datecurrent
Governance ScaleState-based policy
ExplanationNational (all of New Zealand)
Governance System Description 
ExplanationITQs in New Zealand are currently awarded as fixed percentages of Total Allowable Commercial Catches (TACCs). The New Zealand exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is split into fishery management areas (FMAs). There are four squid FMAs; SQUlJ and SQU1 T are the mainland jig and trawl areas respectively; SQU6T is the subantarctic trawl area and SQU1 OT is the Kermadec Islands fishery” (McKinnon 2007). The fishery primary takes place in SQU6T. The Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) is of most importance to commercial fishers as it is from this that individual quotas are assigned. This system was introduced in 1986. Before 1986, restricting vessel numbers controlled the jig catch. The trawl catch was controlled until 1983 by effort limitation, and after 1983, it was controlled by individual company quota. In 1986, the TACC was set at 90,000t, which was increased twice in 1988, first to 105,000t and then again to 121,010t. There were a number of appeals to the Quota Appeal Authority, which saw the TACC raised to 166,250t in 1989 (Gibson, 1995). In 1990, the TACC was reduced to 118,571t where it remained until 1992. In 1992, it was increased to 122,875t (Gibson, 1995). The squid TACC is currently set at 127,322t the TACC has been held at this level since the 1996-1997 season (NZ Ministry of Fisheries, 2001a). It should be noted that all catch data and quota values are for both species of squid (N sloanii and N gouldi) combined (Anon, 2002) (McKinnon 2007). The current Fisheries Act was introduced in 1996 and confirmed a system of ITQs in commercial fisheries as the core of New Zealand’s fisheries management system, providing for further expansion of the number of species included, and fine tuning many operational aspects. Squid management is two part. The first is to manage the TACC at a sustainable use level. This is a very hands off procedure. Landings are much lower than TACC. The realistic management of the system is managing for sea lion escape. This is the primary limitation of fishing activity. SLEDs receive discount and can fish more.
Governance Triggerslow continuous change
ExplanationUntil 1983, New Zealand fisheries were governed by the much-amended Fisheries Act of 1908 (Mace et al., 2014). This management framework had, by the early 1980s, led to low stock sizes in some key inshore fisheries and modest overcapacity of the inshore fishing fleet (Connor, 2001). A new Fisheries Act was introduced in 1983 and substantially amended in 1986 to provide for a system of Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) in inshore commercial fisheries and to solidify the system of ‘enterprise allocations’ previously put in place for deepwater fisheries (Clark and Duncan,1986; Clark et al., 1988). When nations started to acquire jurisdiction over their own EEZs with The Law of the Sea, was clear that needed to come up with a system to manage. Political shift in the 80s that went from a hands on. Then in 1984 there was a significant political change that turned much more free market and open economy. The QMS was very much on that path being that it was rights based and so was set with the new political philosophy. It was a palatable choice and the time when it was introduced. Species continually slowly added to the QMS.
Type Of Formal GovernanceSystem of laws
ExplanationQMS was introduced with the Fisheries Amendment Act 1986. A series of Fisheries amendments have been introduced since, most notably the Fisheries Act of 1996. Management plans just being discussed now.
Governance Knowledge Use[""]
ExplanationScientific Knowledge: Not much local tradition to access. Employes scientific.
CentralizationHighly centralized (4)
ExplanationNew Zealand’s Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) is the agency currently responsible for management of fisheries. The Ministry’s role is to act as the Government’s principal adviser on New Zealand’s fisheries management and the impacts of fishing on the aquatic environment.
Distance To MarketsLess than 10km (1)
ExplanationSquid is found in New Zealand markets frozen (MPI 2016). As well as are sold globally (primary industry)/.
Horizontal CoordinationBoth formal and informal
ExplanationBoth formal and informal. Deepwater Group (DWG) Ltd formed in 2005 to provide a collective voice for deepwater quota owners, collaborate frequently with Ministry of Fisheries. Before that coordinated through Squid Management Company. Official processes for stakeholder engagement. Required by the Fisheries Act. Public incorporation process for any decision Minister makes. Informal coordination does exist through personal relationships. Often professional, but informal discussions exist. Decisions that are final and legalized are all formally conducted. Informally make decisions that do not go through the legal system, such as SLED monitoring and practices. Such informal coordination is often more effective at conserving sea lions than formal legal structure is.
Metric DiversityLow: One metric for success (1)
ExplanationOur goal is to have New Zealanders maximising benefits from the use of fisheries within environmental limits. Has multiple Use Outcomes, Environment Outcomes, and Governance Outcomes. However: In reality the squid management has one outcome: Reduce sea lion mortality. (Other goal is to manage the TACC, but less so in reality). Greater outcomes and goals, but less in reality.
Social Ecological FitMedium (2)
ExplanationFocus on region where most activity occurs. Multiple habitats. Unsure where squid go exactly, and unsure where spawn. One region for fishing is actually not reasonable because is too close to MPA, so no fishery in North despite on paper. Focus of management is on the SQU6T region since this has the most impact with sea lions. This is high SE Fit. However, the other locations would be considered low SE Fit. These do not fit the natural range of squid.
Governance System Spatial Extent5900000
ExplanationTotal area of marine jurisdiction 5,900,000 km2. (MAF 2011)