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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryCendrawasih is gazetted as a nationally protected area under the Park Authority of the Ministry of Forestry (National Act No. 5 1990), it is owned and managed by the national government for the traditional use of communities and biodiversity conservation. In 2002, following a special autonomy law granted for Papua the right to resource management moved from national to local responsibility. The park's area almost entirely overlaps with the area administered under the district of Wondama and a large part of the district of Nabire of West Papua Province.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorMarine protected areas
Begin Date2002
ExplanationWhen the park was officially designated.
End Datecurrent
Governance ScaleState-based policy
Governance System Description 
Governance Trigger 
ExplanationCentral Indonesian governement
Type Of Formal GovernanceSystem of laws
ExplanationCoded as a system of laws from 2002 when the Park was formally designated (National Act No. 5 1990 (Ministry of Forestry)). A management plan came into effect in 2010-2029
Mpa Internal Natural BoundariesLow (1)
ExplanationThere is no clear deliniation of boundaries- the MPA covers half of a large bay. No-take areas are fairly small but focus on reefs and islands, and so are probably likely visable
Mpa Migratory Life HistoryNesting beaches for Green Turtle
ExplanationNesting habitat for the green and hawksbill turtle, and feeding area for leatherback and olive ridley turtle (Mangubhai, Erdmann et al. 2012)
Mpa Threats To Migratory Sp["Resource competition", "Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]
ExplanationMajor Threats to Cendrawasih turtles: predation (wild pigs, dogs, lizards), low hatching success, surrounding land use changes like mining and/or logging, lack of legal protection, overfishing, and reef damage. Climate change potential (Natural Capital Project)
Mpa ThreatsOverfishing and destructuve fishing; land-based activities
ExplanationMajor Threats to Cendrawasih: reef/coral damage, overfishing, potential coastal development, boundary shuffling, recent political autonomy, weak fisheries policy & scientific knowledge. Threats to the Bird's Head area: Over fishing, destructive fishing Land-based activities: Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining; Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation; Poorly planned development; Transmigration from other provinces
Governance Knowledge UseNot Applicable
Pa Car PrinciplesPartially (2)
Explanation50% of critical habitats (mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, where nesting, fish spawning sites) designed to be the no take zone
CentralizationSomewhat decentralized (2)
ExplanationPolicy in Indonesia shifted to be more decentralized (in 1999). In 2002, following a special autonomy law granted for Papua the right to resource management moved from national to local responsibility. In reality the park seems fairly centralised, with data and reports at central government level (from discussions with WWF)
Distance To MarketsBetween 10-100km (2)
ExplanationManokwari - capital of West Papua Province ~95km
Horizontal Coordination 
Mpa Iucn Somewhat Strict Zones %
Mpa Iucn Sustainable Zones 92.9 %
Explanationtraditional use (3875km2) and general use zones (9000km2) Total adds up to >than park area, so percentages taken of this area total = 13975
Mpa Budget867245 $US
ExplanationManagement budget for 2006: 8097531154 Rupiah, converted using 2006 exchange rate = US$ 867,245. http://www.dephut.go.id/Halaman/PDF/BTCNTC/BTNTC_2006.pdf
Mpa ConnectivityPartially (2)
ExplanationThe MPA is a large continuous shape, and it covers approximately half of the entire Bay area. The Bay is known to have limited connectivity outside of this region which has lead to the high number of endemics within the Bay. Teluk Cenderwasih also inlcudes the neighbouring land and so there is some connectivity between habitats and land-sea - I odn't think these were explicitly considered during the design of the MPA.
Mpa Migratory Threats And Redux 
Mpa Motivation["Ecological value"]
ExplanationHigh ecological value - although it's true value (number of endemic species) wasn't fully realised to after designation.
Mpa Primary Goal (In Practice)[]
ExplanationNP Mission: •Strengthen the management of the region to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems •Strengthen protection, law enforcement and rehabilitation efforts preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem resources •Develop optimal utilization for the development of education, research, science, nature tourism and farming to support sustainable use for the improvement of the welfare of the community around the area. •Develop institutional systems and conservation partnerships in the management
Mpa Protection["Encompassing entire habitat"]
Metric Diversity 
Pa Iucn Strict Zones7.8 %
ExplanationCore zone: 0.046km2 Marine protection zone: 1100km2 (no-take = 1100.046km2 (other areas are general use 9000km2 and 3875km2 - total adds up to >than park area, so percentages taken of this area total = 13975))
Social Ecological FitLow (1)
ExplanationThe zoning plan aims to protect key habitats and includes a mix of zones - however, it is very complex. The core zone is very minimal (0.046km2), and the majority is traditional or general use.
Mpa Migratory BenefitMissing
Governance System Spatial Extent13852
ExplanationThe Cenderwasih Bay National Park is 13,852km2