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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryImplemented by the Pacific Fisheries Management Council (federal) which shares jurisdiction of these fisheries with the California Fish and Wildlife (state). Last updated May 2014. First implemented 1982.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorFisheries (Stock-specific)
Begin Date1982
ExplanationImplemented by the PFMC
End DateCurrent
Governance ScaleState-based policy
ExplanationPFMC oversees activities in California, Oregon, and Washington.
Governance System DescriptionThe Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan describes how the Council develops decisions for management of the groundfish fishery. In some cases, it also contains specific, fixed fishery management designations. The plan has been amended several times. More than 90 species of bottom-dwelling marine finfish are included in the federal Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (GFMP). Species and species groups managed under the GFMP include all rockfishes (about 60 species), sablefish, thornyheads, lingcod, Dover sole and other flatfishes (not including halibut), Pacific whiting, and some sharks and skates. Since the FMP began, these species have been managed under the joint jurisdiction of the state and the federal government. The management plan is implemented by the Council, CDFW, and NMFS.
Governance Triggerslow continuous change
ExplanationFisheries were in decline, and Magnuson Stevens Act required fisheries to be managed by council with FMPs.
Type Of Formal GovernanceManagement plan
Governance Knowledge Use["Scientific knowledge"]
CentralizationSomewhat centralized (3)
ExplanationThe Pacific Council is regional (includes Oregon, Washington, California, and Idaho), while NMFS is regional-focused it is a federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife is a state based agency.
Distance To MarketsLess than 10km (1)
ExplanationLocal: less than 10km
Horizontal CoordinationBoth formal and informal
ExplanationWhile mostly formal, informal meetings occur frequently.
Metric DiversityLow: One metric for success (1)
ExplanationWhile the MSA specifies success of management plans to focus on 4 areas: prevent overfishing, rebuild overfished stocks, increase long-term economic and social benefits, and ensure a safe and sustainable supply of seafood, the Council writes that all sectors of the groundfish fishery are currently constrained by the need to rebuild groundfish species that have been declared overfished. Therefore there is an emphasis on rebuilding overfished stocks as a metric for success.
Social Ecological FitLow (1)
ExplanationThe governance specifies nearshore vs offshore stocks and recognizes various habitat types and depths with associated species. The Rockfish Conservation Area fluctuates according to physical changes in the Sanctuary. Essential fish habitats are determined by ecological and physical features.
Governance System Spatial Extent822813
ExplanationPFMC has jurisdiction over the 317,690 square mile exclusive economic zone off Washington, Oregon and California