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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThis is the governance system for Indonesia's forest under the Suharto dictatorship (the "new order") from 1965-1998
SubtypeFormal Governance System
Begin Date1965
ExplanationThis governance system began with a political crisis in 1965 that enabled Suharto, then the head of the military, to begin undermining the rule of Sukarno, the previous ruler of Indonesia. The transition to Suharto's dictatorship took 3 years, ending in 1968 when Suharto took full control of the government.
End Date1998
ExplanationIn 1998 a serious economic crisis led to massive protests which ended Suharto's government. A new democratic governance regime was created which was substantially different from Suharto's dictatorship.
Governance ScaleState-based policy
ExplanationThis was a nation state.
Governance System DescriptionThe government of Suharto from 1965-1998 drew on past governmental traditions, including the Dutch colonial state and Sukarno's government, but also developed new patterns of its own. Unlike Sukarno before him, Suharto encouraged various forms of foreign direct investment and private capital accumulation. He also increased the centralization of an already centralized post-colonial state, weakening local government and formally de-recognizing systems of customary rights for the adat (i.e. indigenous) communities. Forest governance was formally vested in a forestry ministry based in Jakarta, but with weak on the ground presence on the outer islands. Large concessions granted to members of the military and other allies of Suharto were essentially free to use forest resources as they saw fit, and could call on the military to help them deal with restive local populations.
Governance TriggerSudden disturbance
ExplanationThe initiation of Suharto's dictatorship was the result of a rather complicated set of coups and counter-coups that shook Indonesia in 1965, however they were certainly a sudden disturbance, and not a gradual change.
Type Of Formal GovernanceSystem of laws
ExplanationThis was a formal governance system based on a nation state, and thus is a system of laws.
CentralizationHighly centralized (4)
ExplanationThe governance system centered in an individual dictator who centralized power around him and was supported by a very close group of extremely loyal allies. Important decisions were made by Suharto or by government agencies working under him (following his orders) and based in Jakarta, the capital city.