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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThis refers to fishers that harvest toothfish resources in Australian territorial waters; or are subject to Australian regulations.
SubtypeLocal Resource User Group
Interest HeterogeneityLow (1)
ExplanationToothfish fishing rights are held by a small number of operators. At Macquarie Island and Heard and McDonald Islands, rights are held by 2 companies; Austral Fisheries Pty Ltd and Australian Longline Pty Ltd. At Macquarie a maximum of three boats are allowed to operate at any one time. At the Heard and McDonald Islands, up until the 2011/12 season, three vessels were in operation per season. Between 2012/13 and 2013/14 season, four vessels were in operation.
Costs Of ExitYes
ExplanationCosts of exit is high since these two Australian fishing companies hold the entire quota at the Macquarie and the Heard and McDonald Islands. Further, these companies have worked (and invested) in becoming certified as sustainable by the Marine Stewardship Council, which adds further value to the fishery. Also, while Toothfish fisheries exist in other areas throughout the circumpolar region, most of them are in other States' EEZ and would not be open to Australian fishing vessels. Some stocks on the high seas (e.g, in the Ross Sea) would be available to Australian fishing vessels, however, these fisheries occur in a highly competitive Olympic Style fashion and Australian vessels would not be guaranteed any portion of the quota.
Proportionality (Of Costs And Benefits)Yes
Actor Group CoordinationBoth formal and informal
ExplanationThey coordinate through fishing operations. Also, these two companies also applied jointly for MSC certification. They are also members of the Coalition of Legal Toothfish Operators (COLTO) that lobbies on behalf of legal toothfish operators, pressing for regulations against IUU fishing.
Leadership["Informal leader"]
ExplanationThere is some informal leadership through COLTO, particularly though the chairman who heavily lobbies on behalf of COLTO and all legal toothfish operations. The chairman invests his time heavily in traveling to meetings, engaging with industry, NGOs, scientists and others to promote the image of sustainable legal toothfish operators (See e.g., .
Leadership AccountabilityMissing
Leadership AuthorityMissing
Actor Group TrustMissing
Past CollaborationHigh (3)
ExplanationAlthough the companies may compete for access to fishing grounds, they have worked together to obtain sustainability certification (through the MSC) and must continue to work together to maintain this certification. Further, they are members of COLTO and accordingly have worked, and continue to work together, to lobby for legal toothfish operators and to take action against illegal fishing (E.g., Osterblom and Sumaila 2011).
Personal CommunicationMore than once a year (5)
ExplanationIndustry representatives meet multiples times a year through a variety of forums including SARAG (the Subantarctic Resource Assessment Group, which meets multiple times a year), SouthMAC (the Subantarctic Fisheries Management Advisory Committee, which meets at least once a year), CCAMLR meetings, COLTO meetings.
Remote CommunicationMore than once a year (5)
ExplanationIn coordinating through various forums (e.g., see above, SARAG, SouthMAC, CCAMLR, COLTO) as well as MSC certification.