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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThe Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that governs the production and use of ozone depleting substances in nation states that are signatories. At present this includes all nations states recognized by the United Nations.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorAir Pollution
Begin Date1989
ExplanationThe Montreal Protocol entered into force on January 1st, 1989. Since then a variety of amendments have been proposed and accepted which have tended to accelerate the rate of implementation.
End DateCurrent
Governance ScaleInternational Regime
Governance System DescriptionThe protocol, enacted on January 1, 1989, is a universally adopted treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by gradually reducing and, in some cases, eliminating the production of a variety of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) through restrictions on emissions by particular industries regulated by nation-states. The treaty was convened under the authority of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone and has been revised seven times. it is expected that the cumulative reductions in the emission of ODS will begin to have an impact on global ozone concentrations toward the middle of the twenty-first century (Ravishankara 2009).
Governance Triggerslow continuous change
Type Of Formal GovernanceTreaty
CentralizationHighly centralized (4)