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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThe Raja Ampat MPA is a network of 7 MPAs and is officially managed under the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. It was first declared in 2007 (although was not a large MPA by our definition at this stage: 8352km2), the boundaries were then extended in 2009, through a head-of-government decree (Peraturan Bupati No.5/2009) - fulfilling our size requirements >10,000km2. Government regulation 60/2007 states that these MPAs must be ‘managed as an integrated whole within a system’. This led to the formation of an organisation unit to manage the Raja Ampat MPAs: Technical Unit of the Marine and Fisheries Agency for the Raja Ampat Marine Protected Area. The MPA network is governed by the Raja Ampat Regency and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) with support from The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Conservation International (CI) and the COREMAP program. Draft management plans have been produced MPAs in the network that have national recognition, and zoning plans are close to completion for MPAs managed by the regency.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorMarine protected areas
Begin Date2009
ExplanationCoded from 2009 when the MPA boundaries were extended and the Network fulfilled our size requirements
End DateCurrent
Governance ScaleState-based policy
ExplanationState-based policy - Raja Ampat Regency
Governance System DescriptionThe legal basis is National Act No. 31, 2004, "with management plans for each MPA and an over-arching management plan for all MPAs in the network close to completion. The Raja Ampat MPAs were designated by indigenous communities and are collaboratively-managed in a partnership between local communities and the Raja Ampat regency government"=>nil, "with additional support from International NGOs (CI +TNC)"=>nil}
ExplanationRaja Ampat MPAs come under the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (as apposed to the Ministry of Forestry for Wakatobi and Cendrawasih) - they tend to be less centralistic and have more local government and other stakeholders (Wiadnya et al. 2011). The MPAs are under a co-management structure, building on the strong local management of marine resources that was in place before (sasi laut). Sasi laut incorporates a set of institutional roles with varying degrees of influence wielded by religious and government authorities (Zerner, 1994). There is heavy inolvement from NGOs (TNC/CI) who are operating in Raja Ampat as part of the broader Birdshead Seascape. The MPAs are to some extent funded by COREMAP-CTI (World Bank funded)
Governance Triggerslow continuous change
ExplanationStarted with landmark meeting in 2003 – adat laders from across Raja Ampat, including RA government and NGOs came together to discuss current state of marine resources - tomlol declaration – it was recognised there was a decline in resources, with outside fishermen coming in, and local people needing to paddle further to catch fish - wanted to do something about it and wanted to reclaim traditional rights over their reefs.
Type Of Formal GovernanceSystem of laws
ExplanationFocussed on the System of Laws - there is a formal management plan that includes components for each of the MPAs, and a management plan for the whole network, but there is contention over which MPAs are to be finally included in this plan (there are currently two versions - one included Kawe and one without).
Mpa Internal Natural BoundariesMedium (2)
ExplanationCoded as medium as some of the MPAs are all no take, but others aren't. And from the zoning map it appears not all reefs are included within MPAs, e.g. in Mayalilbit the MPA covers a portion of the reef area, and Dampier Strait some there is no clear boundary at the south-east portion of this MPA.
Mpa Migratory Life History 
Explanationnesting and foraging populations of green and hawksbill turtles. A total of 17 species of marine mammals including 9 whale species, 7 dolphin species and dugong have been recorded indicating that Raja Ampat is likely to be an important migratory pathway, feeding and/or breeding ground for these species. TNC Factsheet : The Raja Ampat Islands. 2011
Mpa Threats To Migratory Sp["Resource competition", "Bycatch"]
Mpa ThreatsOverfishing/destructive fishing; land-based activities
Explanation-Over fishing, destructive fishing -Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining -Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation -Poorly planned development -Transmigration from other provinces (Intro to TelCen+BHS powerpoint)
Governance Knowledge Use["Scientific knowledge", "Local/traditional knowledge"]
ExplanationHeavy involvement of Conservation NGOs who provide much of the science to feed into the management. However, MPAs were originally built upon local-taboo/sasi management and this is still incorporated.
Pa Car PrinciplesYes (3)
ExplanationYes - the ecological prinicples were fully considered, including the use of Marxan, expert mapping and the wide variety of surveys (see Agostini et al 2012).
CentralizationSomewhat decentralized (2)
ExplanationRaja Ampat Regency - officially managed under the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, but management is shared between local communtiies and local governement with support from International NGOs (TNC + CI)
Distance To MarketsBetween 10-100km (2)
ExplanationMajor city is Sarong - considered the 'gateway to Raja Ampat' - West Papua (it has a port and airport) Distance to Sorong from MPA boundaries varies as it is a network - shortest distance is from Dampier Strait MPA and is ~10km
Horizontal CoordinationBoth formal and informal
ExplanationThe MPAs were built upon traditional marine management "sasi", which is still followed
Mpa Iucn Somewhat Strict Zones %
Mpa Iucn Sustainable Zones 80 %
ExplanationThe other zones are: Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture zone; Zone cruise line ships; sasi and traditional use zone; Other utilization zone - which make up 80% of the MPAs. Sasi and traditional use zone cover 53% of total area and inlcude periodic closures for certain species. Percentage calculated from zoning given in Boli et al. 2014. for the 5 MPAs presented in the paper (total 9905.76km2, not total area of the MPA network)
Mpa BudgetMissing
Mpa ConnectivityYes (3)
ExplanationThis is a network of MPAs with sites distributed across the region. Knowledge of currents was apparently considered when designing MPAs (see Agostini et al. 2012)
Mpa Migratory Threats And Redux 
ExplanationShark sanctuary declared in 2010 - covers 46,000 km2 of waters around the Raja Ampat islands - to protect: dugongs, sharks, turtles and manta rays
Mpa Motivation["Ecological value"]
ExplanationRaja Ampat is a national and global priority for conservation as it contains the world’s most diverse coral reefs and critical habitats for globally threatened marine species, and is a cetacean migratory corridor.
Mpa Primary Goal (In Practice)["Biodiversity conservation", "Social goals"]
ExplanationMain aim of MPAs was to support local food security and traditional rights
Mpa Protection["Reducing threats"]
ExplanationThe main aim was to reduce destructive fishing pressure
Metric DiversityHigh: Many metrics for success (3)
ExplanationMany metrics from social (perceptions) to ecological (turtles, coral, fish spawning)
Pa Iucn Strict Zones20 %
ExplanationTotal of 1982.32km2 no take (core and tourism zones) - percentage calculated from zoning given in Boli et al 2014. for the 5 MPAs presented in the paper (total 9905.76km2, not total area of the MPA network) Could not find zoning details on other MPAs
Social Ecological FitHigh (3)
ExplanationGood social fit and covers wide vairety of habitat and areas, including large no take areas
Mpa Migratory BenefitYes
ExplanationA turtle nest-guarding team developed by local NGO Papuan Sea Turtle Foundation (YPP) and staffed by local villagers has effectively reduced turtle poaching from an estimated 95 percent mortality of nests and nesting turtles to zero in the Piai Island Rookery, with over 1400 green turtle nests successfully laid and hatched since September 2006. (CI Seascape Factsheet 2008) The entire area is a Shark Sanctuary offering protection to sharks and mantas - there have been some high profile prosecutions.
Governance System Spatial Extent11859
Explanation11,859km2 is the total area of the MPA network