- Variable relationship:
While they originated in different research communities, the theoretical arguments contained in discussions of comanagement-based and polycentric governance have increasingly become integrated and indistinguishable (see Huitema et al. 2009). As such, they are treated as one theory in this database.
Carlsson and Berkes (2005: 66) quote the World Bank (1998: 11) in defining co-management as "the sharing of responsibilities, rights and duties between the primary stakeholders, in particular, local communities and the nation state; a decentralized approach to decision-making that involves the local users in the decision-making process as equals with the nation-state."
Comanagement is associated with different regime types depending on the sector. In the forest sector, it is known as Joint Forest Management (JFM) (Kumar 2002). Comanagement is sometimes conflated with CBNRM, but it is distinct in that the communities involved share power to varying degrees with the state (Sen and Nielsen 1996), whereas in CBNRM, the communities have the majority of the authority over decision-making. A number of variables associated with successful community-based natural resource management have also been argued to play a role in comanagement. These include: clear social and property boundaries, leadership, and supportive regional and national policies. These variables are not included in this entry as specific to co-management.
Polycentric comanagement systems are somewhat but not completely decentralized (Centralization), with coordination both within and across levels (Horizontal Coordination; Multiple Levels). In that context, the allocation of real decision making power to communities (Commons Political Power; External Recognition; Participation in Rule Making) and the use of both traditional and scientific (Governance Knowledge Use) can balance the tendency of government to impose top-down scientific policies (see failure of centralization theory). This arrangement also ensures that local users comply with rules (Compliance), and provides the system with a level of institutional diversity (Institutional Diversity) that aids in its adaption to changing conditions and disturbances (Actor Adaptive Capacity) and tailor institutions to local contexts (Social-ecological Fit). All in all, polycentric comanagement results in the maintenance of the commons condition (Commons Condition Trend).
- Scientific Field
- Component Type(s)
- Group of Local Resource User Groups, Government Agency
|Governance knowledge use||Underlying independent variable||One of the strengths of comanagement is seen to be its inherent use of both scientific and traditional knowledge, each of which offers its own advantages for the effective management of a commons.||Scientific knowledge and Local/traditional knowledge|
|Participation in rule making||Underlying independent variable||Users who participate in the design of policies that affect their use of the resource gain ownership over those policies and therefore are more eager to follow the rules. The rules are also more likely to be legitimate and fit to local conditions, which increases their effectiveness.||High|
|External recognition||Underlying independent variable||Comanagement involves the recognition that local commons users have some local autonomy.||Moderate to high|
|Centralization||Underlying independent variable||Much of the attraction of comanagement comes from it being somewhat decentralized, which enables the participation of local commons users in decision-making.||Somewhat decentralized|
|Commons political power||Underlying independent variable||Autonomy of local user groups to manage the resource witin their jurisdictions allows increasing fit to local conditions||High|
|Horizontal coordination||Underlying independent variable||Jurisdictions that are coordinated with each other is is constitutive of polycentric orders||Both formal and informal|
|Multiple levels||Underlying independent variable||This theory presupposes the existence of a multi-level governance system||Coordination among multiple levels|
|Institutional diversity||Proximate independent variable||Decentralization, combined with a degree of autonomy of local decision-making centers enables a level of institutional diversity across the system.||High|
|Social-ecological fit||Intermediate outcome||Socio-ecological fit increases the likelihood of sustainable use of resources, particularly in contexts of local diversity and changing environmental conditions.||High|
|Actor adaptive capacity||Intermediate outcome||High diversity and autonomy, along with their ability to coordinate actions and share experiences, enables subsystems to respond to changes and disturbances that they may face.||High|
|Compliance||Intermediate outcome||When the ability of local commons users to construct their own rules is not threatened, they are more likely to comply with the institutional arrangements embodied in the comanagement arrangement.||Yes|
|Commons condition trend||Final outcome||The conditions of the resource improve as a result of polycentric co-management.||Remained the same or Improved|
|Failure of centralized control||related|
|External recognition and local autonomy||contains|
|Crowding in and participation||contains|
|Political decentralization and fit||contains|