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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Case

SummaryBrazil has a network of marine extractive reserves (RESEX), a form of marine protected area (MPA) using comanagement. The RESEX program aims to bring traditionally marginalized populations with natural resource dependent livelihoods into national development processes by empowering them to participate in governance and steward biodiversity conservation. This case focuses on a coastal and marine RESEX in Braganca in Northern Brazil. The area is situated within the second largest mangrove ecosystem in the world, with an extensive mangrove crab fishery, among other coastal natural resources harvested by local populations scattered across the Braganca peninsula in more than 20 communities. The Braganca RESEX has struggled to shift towards comanagement over the last 20 years amidst national level political changes in natural resource management policy and local level changes in fisher migration and increased harvesting.
Statuspublic
TeamStefan's team
Start Date2018-09-05 06:18:55 -0400
Coding Complete?Yes
Date Completed2019-06-07 09:12:29 -0400
SectorForests, Marine protected areas, Fisheries (Stock-specific), Scientific Research and Conservation
ProjectSESMAD
Data Source(s)Primary data, Secondary data
CountryBrazil
External BiophysicalSea-level rise; erosion; mangrove degradation; crab reproduction
External SocialThe RESEX program aims to bring marginalized traditional populations that depend on local natural resources into national development processes by empowering them to participate in national government supported formal management of RESEX areas. The RESEX goals include the sustainable management of resources to maintain local livelihoods while simultaneously stewarding biodiversity conservation (e.g., Simonian and Glaser 2002). In Brazil, RESEX comanagement is a major advance because it legitimizes nature-dependent and largely marginalized natural resource users in a formal legal framework to replace widespread illegality in harvesting practice and to motivate collective action for sustainable resource use (Glaser et al. 2003, Di Ciommo 2007). Other types of conservation units along with RESEX are managed by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) throughout Brazil. The ICMBio was founded in 2009 and is part of the Federal Ministry of the Environment (MMA). The ICMBio also collaborates with the Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), tasked with monitoring environmental laws. Of Brazil’s currently 88 RESEX, 24 are marine and 12 of these are located on the coast of the state of Pará (North Brazil), including the case study of this research. Marine RESEX programs have struggled for success (da Silva 2004, Santos and Schiavetti 2014), facing a variety of challenges including social conflicts between fishers and other actors (Santos and Schiavetti 2014), low social and cultural preparedness for formal governance (da Silva 2004, Di Ciommo 2007), low socioeconomic welfare and few alternative livelihood opportunities (Glaser and da Silva Oliveira 2004, Santos and Brannstrom 2015), and deficient monitoring and compliance with rules (Erler et al. 2015, Nobre et al. 2017). Recognition for the historical dynamics of local management and adjusting comanagement to local norms has shown to be difficult, and failure can hinder progress, which has been shown in other non-RESEX areas in Brazil (Tebet et al. 2018). Most studies see the RESEX program as a move in the right direction, but argue that implementation is affected by a multitude of institutional challenges. The Brazilian RESEX program expresses a shift in the political discourse on environmental management toward a collaborative "people and nature” conservation model (Mace 2014, Bennett et al. 2017)
SnapshotsMost primary data for this project was collected between March - July 2016. Data describing variables with historical relevance draw largely on secondary data from existing literature and previous projects.
Timeline1990 - First RESEX created in Brazil 1960 to 90’s - Drought related immigration waves from the State of Ceará to Bragança, and from the logged and cattle farmed Amazonian rainforests, both expanding the fishing sector Late 1990’s - First social movements advocating for RESEX establishment in Braganca 1995 - “Mangrove Dynamics and Management” (MADAM) research program was initiated to research the dynamics of mangrove ecosystems and to support the formulation of management recommendations based on this knowledge 2000 - First concerted initiative at RESEX creation in Braganca with required preliminary studies May 2005 - Creation of the Caeté-Taperaçú RESEX. “Plano de Utilização” August 2005 - Association of RESEX Users (ASSUREMACATA) is established 2006 - Benefits come to RESEX members (houses, scholarships, compensation payments for foregone use of nature, consumer goods such as refrigerators, cookers) 2007 - Constitution for the RESEX Deliberative Council established 2008 - Dispute between community leaders for the institutional political space in RESEX management (legislative election- “vereador”) 2009 - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) established - Arrival of the first manager of the RESEX - Start of process to develop management plan - The meeting “I Forum paraense do caranguejo-uça” with 500 crab collectors representing 21 municipalities from State of Pará discussed the crab fishery management 2011 - The “Contrato de Concessão de Direito Real de Uso” (Land concession to the associaiton of users) of the RESEX was established for 50 years - Publication of who is eligible to receive benefits from governmental programs in the CT RESEX, decided by the Deliberative Council. 2012 - Publication of Management plan for the Caeté-Taperaçú RESEX. 2013 - Judicial suspension of user association (ASSUREMACATA). 2014 - IDATAM (Institute of Development and Technical Assistance of the Amazon), civil association that provided services of technical assistance and rural extension to RESEX communities - Creation of CONFREM (“Comissão Nacional para o Fortalecimento das Reservas Extrativistas e dos Povos Extrativistas Costeiros Marinhos”): Representation of Traditional Populations from marine RESEX areas. 2015 - Evaluation workshop with 40 communities represented - Meetings to update the operational use rules of the RESEX (Work Groups: crab, fisheries, currals and monitoring). “Acordos de Gestão” (Updating of “Plano de Utilização”). 2017 - Training of young people in sustainability by UNESCO Cooperation Program and Vale Foundation (Sustainable Fishing Project on the Amazon Coast – “PeSCA”) - Training program for leadership and biological monitoring of fisheries- crab, Ucides cordatus, and king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon- was initiated by the NGO Rare (Fish Forever Program).
Modeling Issues
Surveys
TheoriesCultural heterogeneity and collective action, Natural resource dependence, Private property rights and conservation, Accountable leadership, Past collaboration and social capital, Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), Crowding out from external support, Group size and collective action, Economic heterogeneity and collective action, Interest heterogeneity and collective action, Marginalization and degradation, User group boundaries, Proportionality and collective-action, Commons boundaries and collective action, Local livelihood and protected areas, Conflict resolution and collective action, Transaction costs and collective action, Social-ecological fit theory, Subsidies and perverse incentives, Collective action and the commons, Communication and collective action

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Attached Components

Actors

Name:
Secretary of State for the Environment of Pará (SEMA) in Brazil
details
Past collaboration:
Missing
Costs of exit:
Not Applicable
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Not Applicable
Interest heterogeneity:
Missing
Leadership:
Missing
Leadership authority:
Missing
Actor group trust:
Missing
Personal communication:
Missing
Remote communication:
Missing
Leadership accountability:
Missing
Actor group coordination:
Missing
Name:
Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)
details
Past collaboration:
Missing
Costs of exit:
 
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
 
Interest heterogeneity:
 
Leadership:
[""]
Leadership authority:
Missing
Actor group trust:
Missing
Personal communication:
Missing
Remote communication:
 
Leadership accountability:
Missing
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
Name:
Brazilian Institute of the Environment & Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA)
details
Past collaboration:
Missing
Costs of exit:
Not Applicable
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Not Applicable
Interest heterogeneity:
Not Applicable
Leadership:
Missing
Leadership authority:
Missing
Actor group trust:
Missing
Personal communication:
Missing
Remote communication:
Missing
Leadership accountability:
Missing
Actor group coordination:
Missing
Name:
Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in Brazil
details
Past collaboration:
High (3)
Costs of exit:
Missing
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Missing
Interest heterogeneity:
Missing
Leadership:
["", "Formal leader"]
Leadership authority:
Low (1)
Actor group trust:
Medium (2)
Personal communication:
Less than once every 2 years (2)
Low communication
Remote communication:
Less than once every 2 years (2)
Low communication between groups
Leadership accountability:
Low (1)
Actor group coordination:
Informal

Governance Systems

Name:
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil
details
Type of formal governance:
Management plan
End Date:
Current
Begin date:
2009
Governance trigger:
slow continuous change
Governance system description:
Participatory co-management
The Caeté-Taperaçú RESEX was created in 2005 as a comanaged marine extractive reserve in which the rights to extract resources are given to an association of users to collectively develop rules. The comanagement rights apply exclusively within the RESEX boundaries. To address identified user conflicts relating to the local mangroves, local village residents were offered comanagement rights to address conflicts under the RESEX legal framework, then administered by the Conselho Nacional de Populacoes Tradicionais (National Council of Traditional Populations, CNPT), the predecessor of ICMBio. Since 1998, extensive diagnostic assessments have been conducted in the area by the local university, the rural farmers union, and CNPT/IBAMA. These contributed to the initiation of the RESEX in 2005. Despite these earlier efforts, the initial diagnostic phase to assess the status of the area or the current management plan is stated in the official document as not having begun until 2009. The final management plan was only published in 2012, stating the goal of “...conservation, preservation and sustainable use of natural resources...to improve the living conditions and enhancement of traditional culture for people...residing in and/or around [the RESEX]”.
Governance scale:
State-based policy
Centralization:
Somewhat decentralized (2)
Metric diversity:
High: Many metrics for success (3)
MPA primary goal (in practice):
["", "Biodiversity conservation", "Fisheries improvement", "Social goals"]
MPA motivation:
["", "Other"]
MPA protection:
["", "Other"]
MPA internal natural boundaries:
High (3)
Distance to markets:
Between 10-100km (2)
MPA budget:
Missing
PA IUCN strict zones:
Missing
MPA connectivity:
Yes (3)
PA CAR principles:
Partially (2)
MPA migratory benefit:
Not Applicable
MPA migratory life history:
Not Applicable
MPA threats to migratory sp:
Not Applicable
MPA migratory threats and redux:
Not Applicable
Social-ecological fit:
Low (1)
Governance knowledge use:
["", "Scientific knowledge", "Local/traditional knowledge"]
MPA IUCN somewhat strict zones:
Missing
MPA IUCN sustainable zones :
Missing
MPA threats:
Over-harvesting of mangrove reserouces and erosion
Over-harvesting mangrove crab and wood. Erosion from development and sea-level rise
Governance system spatial extent:
420
Horizontal coordination:
Informal

Environmental Commons

Name:
Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil
details
Productivity:
Very productive (3)
Commons spatial extent:
420
The Caete-Teperacu RESEX (420 square kilometers) is a large coastal estuary forming a peninsula with numerous rivers and tributaries, and it is embedded in the world’s second largest continuous mangrove ecosystem spanning ~23,000 square kilometers.
Environmental medium:
Terrestrial
Coastal mangrove forest and estuary
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
Intra annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Technical substitute:
No
Commons boundaries:
Somewhat unclear boundaries (2)
Coastal mangrove ecosystem is continuous, but the biophysical boundaries of the extractive reserve are situated between the Caeté and Taperaçú rivers on the Bragança Peninsula.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
Commons accessibility:
Somewhat accessible (2)
The mangrove forest is a swamp with entangled roots in deep thick mud and requires considerable physical endurance and local knowledge to navigate for fishing. Due to the difficulties with carrying large sacks of crabs, fishers don’t go far into the forest or stray off known routes. They also access the mangrove with boats during high tide in some areas.
Internal Ecological Connectivity:
High (3)
External Ecological Connectivity:
High (3)

Component Interactions

Governance Interaction

Harvesting mangrove resources

Commons User:
Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in Brazil (Actor)
Governs:
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil (Governance System)
Primary:
Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil (Environmental Common)