Proportionality and collective-action
- Variable relationship:
Ostrom (1990) highlights the importance of proportionality between costs and benefits (Proportionality), and associates it with collective-action (Collective Action) and commons maintenance (Commons Condition Trend). In addition, proportionality is related to a model of human behavior that underlies much of the literature on the commons (e.g. see Ostrom 2005). This model argues that commons users will continue to cooperate so long as the costs do not outweight the benefits. A proportionality of costs and benefits ensures that, in accordance with the rise in costs associated with cooperation, benefits are also increased. Several other theories are seen as a way to ensure this proportionality and the cooperation needed in ever case to ensure that a commons is sustained.
- Scientific Field
- Component Type(s)
|Proportionality (of costs and benefits)
|Proximate independent variable
|Proportionality between the relative distribution of costs and benefits increases the likelihood that actors will invest in managing a resource.
|Proportional costs and benefits help to ensure that users are incentivized to cooperate with each other over time to sustain a commons.
|Commons condition trend
|High levels of collective-action help to sustain the commons that is being managed.
|Remained the same or improved.
|CBNRM design principles
|Crowding out from external support
|Collective action and the commons