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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Case

SummaryAquaculture is included in many integrated coastal management projects in Indonesia and an integral part of the national commitment to “blue growth”, where marine resources play a key role in sustainable development (FAO, 2016; 2014; White et al., 2005). While capture fisheries are considered fully exploited, aquaculture has potential to grow (Belton and Thilsted, 2014; Gentry et al., 2017; Troell et al., 2017), and the Indonesian government strives to support this sector with research and development efforts, as well as with governmental programs such as the Aquaculture Development Directorate Task Force, which aims to improve the organization and capacity of aquaculture farmers (Aslan et al., 2015; Rimmer et al., 2013). The aquaculture sector has grown from 0.2 million tons average annual production in the early 1960s to 1.3 million tons at the beginning of the 21st century (Fuglie, 2010). Communities practicing pond aquaculture on the Sekotong peninsula of Lombok Island, Indonesia are of interest for their milkfish cultivation in mangrove areas. The government specifically supports these local communities through a subsidy program with the aim to develop additional aquaculture based livelihoods, which draws interest for evaluating their current condition, development progress and possible improvements. Pond aquaculture in the Sekotong area consists of a terrestrially-based pond-canal system, fed by freshwater from rivers and seawater from daily tidal fluctuations. Pond-canal aquaculture networks face similar commons dilemmas as irrigation systems, where asymmetric incentives exist for pond farmers at different locations in the network where natural advantages for water distribution exist.
Statuspublic
TeamStefan's team
Start Date2018-09-05
Coding Complete?Yes
Date Completed2019-06-07
SectorFisheries (Stock-specific), Scientific Research and Conservation, Irrigation
ProjectSESMAD
Data Source(s)Primary data
CountryIndonesia
External BiophysicalTidal fluctuations; seasonal rainfall and flooding; drought
External SocialNational subsidies for aquaculture growth; policy transition towards coastal development promoting blue growth economy; high dependence on local natural resources for many communities facing exploited wild-catch fisheries
SnapshotsPrimary data collected between October 2015 - February 2016.
Timeline
Modeling Issues
Surveys
TheoriesCultural heterogeneity and collective action, Natural resource dependence, Private property rights and conservation, Accountable leadership, CBNRM design principles, Group size and collective action, Economic heterogeneity and collective action, Interest heterogeneity and collective action, Commons boundaries and collective action, Transaction costs and collective action, Subsidies and perverse incentives, Collective action and the commons, Communication and collective action

Visualization

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Attached Components

Actors

Name:
Lombok aquaculture farmers
details
Interest heterogeneity:
Low (1)
Costs of exit:
Yes
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Missing
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
Aquaculture farmers need to formally self-organize into groups (max. 10 people) to apply for government subsidy aid. Farmers also cooperate informally in other ways.
Leadership:
["", "Formal leader"]
Formal leaders are need to from formal groups and apply for subsidy aid, but in leadership is not strong.
Leadership accountability:
Low (1)
Leadership authority:
Low (1)
Actor group trust:
Medium (2)
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
Remote communication:
Never (1)
Past collaboration:
High (3)
Most farmers consider aquaculture in the area to be a part of their family history in the community.
Name:
Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPI
details
Interest heterogeneity:
Not Applicable
Costs of exit:
Not Applicable
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
 
Actor group coordination:
Not Applicable
Leadership:
Not Applicable
Leadership accountability:
Not Applicable
Leadership authority:
Missing
Actor group trust:
Not Applicable
Past collaboration:
Not Applicable
Personal communication:
Not Applicable
Remote communication:
Not Applicable

Governance Systems

Name:
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture
details
Begin date:
Not Applicable
End Date:
Not Applicable
Governance scale:
Sub-national (State, Province, District)
Governance system description:
 
Governance trigger:
 
Type of formal governance:
 
Governance knowledge use:
["", "Scientific knowledge", "Other"]
Centralization:
Somewhat decentralized (2)
Distance to markets:
 
Horizontal coordination:
 
Metric diversity:
 
Social-ecological fit:
 
Governance system spatial extent:
 

Environmental Commons

Name:
Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals
details
Commons boundaries:
Clear boundaries (3)
Environmental medium:
Terrestrial
External Ecological Connectivity:
High (3)
Fed by river system in rainy season and tides from the ocean
Internal Ecological Connectivity:
Missing
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Yearly droughts and rainfall are less predictable with climate change.
Intra annual predictability:
High (3)
Seasonality (wet vs dry season) plays a strong role in the amount of water availability in the canals.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
Productivity:
Moderately Productive (2)
Commons accessibility:
Very accessible (3)
Commons heterogeneity:
High (3)
Head and tail-enders have different degrees of water accessibility in the canal system.
Commons spatial extent:
Missing
Technical substitute:
No

Component Interactions

Governance Interaction

Aquaculture subsidy

Governs:
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Governance System)
Governing Organization:
Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPI (Actor)
Commons User:
Lombok aquaculture farmers (Actor)
Primary:
Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals (Environmental Common)

Governance Interaction

Maintanence and use of aquaculture irrigation canals

Commons User:
Lombok aquaculture farmers (Actor)
Primary:
Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals (Environmental Common)
Governs:
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Governance System)