Environmental kuznets curve
- Variable relationship:
As described by Stern (2004), the Environmental Kuznets curve theory predicts that, as incomes rise (Economic Status), there will be worsening environmental conditions, but that after a certain threshold is crossed, this deterioration will slow and reverse itself, with economic development and environmental quality eventually being positively correlated (Commons Condition Trend).
The idea behind the theory is that as economies grow, tastes, technology and environmental investments also change, i.e., in favor of resource conservation. Specifically, technology (Technology Role) favors more efficient use of natural resources and therefore contributes to the maintenance of resource conditions in the long term.
- Scientific Field
- Component Type(s)
|Economic status||Proximate independent variable||Increasing economic status of commons users has a non-linear relationship with commons condition, as initial development deteriorates the environment, but then enables its protection. Thisis the case because increased economic status contributes to investments in more efficient technologies and increased environmental concerns.||Increasing|
|Technology role||Moderating independent variable||More efficient technologies contribute to resource produtivity and conservation for given levels of resource use demand.||Increased productivity|
|Commons condition trend||Final outcome||Commons conditions initially decline as income rises, but then are predicted to improve.||Worsened then improved|
|Forest transition theory||related|
|Borlaug hypothesis and deforestation||related|
|Poverty and resource degradation||related|
Stern, David I. 2004. “The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.” World Development 32 (8): 1419–1439.