Hobley, Mary. 1996. Participatory forestry: the process of change in India and Nepal.
Abstract:The historical development of participatory forest management (PFM) approaches in India and Nepal is reviewed, and the strengths and weaknesses of these new approaches are analysed. Generic principles of PFM, which are widely applicable outside South Asia, are developed, drawing on firsthand experiences of foresters and on the growing empirical literature emerging from India and Nepal. The internal and external factors which have led to the adjustment of national policies and practices are discussed. A typology of participation is provided and terms, such as social forestry, farm forestry, community forestry, joint forest management and rural development forestry, are explained. The diversity of interest groups and individuals involved in PFM is discussed, power relations between individuals are examined, and examples of emerging partnerships provided. It is shown that there is no one solution, but rather a continuum of institutional arrangements. A bibliography and glossary are included, and video material and other information sources are listed. Several workshop or training exercises are provided.