• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Case

SummaryThe Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, with universal ratification, is considered a successful example of international cooperation. The protocol was negotiated over several years reflecting increasing recognition of problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer as a result of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Since 1989, when the Montreal Protocol entered into force, the production of Ozone Depleting Substance, most notably CFCs, has rapidly declined and it is expected that atmospheric ozone concentrations
Statuspublic
TeamMontreal Protocol Team
Start Date2014-05-22 11:40:13 -0400
Coding Complete?Yes
Date Completed2014-10-17 12:21:06 -0400
SectorAir Pollution
ProjectSESMAD
Data Source(s)Secondary data
CountryInternational
External BiophysicalThere are few external biophysical processes that affect the Montreal Protocol case as important market and technological developments regarding ozone depletion are integral to the analysis of the case. In recent years, the relationship between ozone-depleting substances, their substitutes and climate change has been recognized.
External Social
Snapshots1975-1988: Open Access: This snapshot records information about actors, environmental commons and their interactions before the Montreal Protocol came into force. During this snapshot, knowledge regarding ozone depletion and negotiations took place with varying degrees of urgency. 1989-2012: International cooperation: This snapshot records information about actors, environmental commons and their interactions after the Montreal Protocol came into force. During this snapshot implementation of the protocol began and emissions of ODS were reduced drastically. Negotiations also continued regarding how to account for disparities between developed and developing countries and specific timetables for the elimination of particular Ozone Depleting Substances
Timeline1939: CFCs are invented 1973: R Stolarsky and R Cicerone indicated that chlorine released in the stratosphere could unleash a complicated chemical process that would continually destroy ozone for several decades (published in 1974) 1974: M Molina and S Rowland discovered that, unlike most other gases, CFCs are not chemically broken down or rained out quickly in the lower atmosphere but rather, because of their exceptionally stable chemical structure, persist and migrate slowly up to the stratosphere. They concluded that CFCs are eventually broken down by solar radiation and in the process release large quantities of chlorine into the stratosphere 1970s: Start of international scientific efforts to begin cooperation on research with an eye toward building a regulatory regime. They begin under conditions of great uncertainty 1977: International cooperation started with a conference of experts from 32 countries, convened by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), adoption of the World Plan of Action and established a Coordinating Committee 1981: The UNEP Governing Council authorized negotiations to attempt to create a binding treaty on measures to protect the ozone layer 1985: Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer 1986: Ozone hole is clearly observed 1987: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer successfully negotiated and opened for signatures 1988: NASA-sponsored Ozone Trends Panel reported that ozone depletion was occurring and that it had human-induced causes 1989-2012: The protocol entered into force 1990: Second meeting of parties to Montreal Protocol at London. London amendments to the Protocol 1992: Copenhagen amendments to the Protocol permanently establish the Multilateral Fund 1997: Montreal amendments to the Protocol 1999: Beijing amendments to the Protocol 2007: Montreal Declaration 2012: 25th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol
Modeling IssuesAll major components were coded with the exception of the end-users of ozone depleting substances, and non-governmental organizations that placed pressure on parties to reach agreement and account for economic inequality among nations. Thus the case focuses more intently on production, negotiations and governance than it does on the social and economic factors that drive use of ozone depleting substances. Nonetheless, many of these attributes are reflected in the interests of ODS producers and nations.
Surveys
Theories

Visualization

Show Render

Hide Render


Attached Components

Actors

Name:
Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers
details
Past collaboration:
High (3)
Past collaboration was lower and more collusive prior to the Montreal Protocol. It then declined as DuPont altered its position in favor of regulations unilaterally. Post-Protocol it became highly collaborative again.
Costs of exit:
Yes
No producer has broken with the Protocol agreement.
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Yes
Interest heterogeneity:
Medium (2)
Leadership:
No leader
At the beginning of the Montreal Protocol, DuPont emerged as an informal leader. However, at present, there are no leaders.
Leadership authority:
Low (1)
Not applicable.
Actor group trust:
Medium (2)
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
Remote communication:
More than once a year (5)
Leadership accountability:
Low (1)
Not applicable.
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
Name:
Ozone Secretariat
details
Past collaboration:
 
Costs of exit:
No
The ozone layer is a commons, and so member or non-member states receive the benefit of the treaty regardless of membership.
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
No
High-income countries (designated as Article 5 countries) and lower-income countries have common but differentiated responsibilities (http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/montreal_protocol.php).
Interest heterogeneity:
Low (1)
The key difference is the extent to which signatory nations can afford alternatives to ODS if they are expensive.
Leadership:
Formal leader
The Secretariat has a permanent staff based at the United Nations Environment Programme Office in Nairobi, Kenya.
Leadership authority:
High (3)
The Secretariat has the power to monitor implementation of the Protocol, although sanctions are rarely if ever used.
Actor group trust:
 
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
Remote communication:
More than once a year (5)
Leadership accountability:
Low (1)
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
The Ozone Secretariat coordinates formal meetings of the Parties but also acts to build capacity of countries with nascent regulatory systems. The Secretariat functions in accordance with article 12 of the Montreal Protocol, and its duties include administration, monitoring implementation, collection and processing of ODS data from the parties to the convention, and providing information concerning the ozone layer.
Name:
Ozone Nation States
details
Past collaboration:
Low (1)
Costs of exit:
 
Not applicable
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Yes
Interest heterogeneity:
High (3)
Leadership:
No leader
Leadership authority:
 
Not applicable
Actor group trust:
 
Missing in case
Personal communication:
Once a year (4)
Remote communication:
 
Missing in case
Leadership accountability:
 
Not applicable
Actor group coordination:
Formal

Governance Systems

Name:
Montreal Protocol
details
Type of formal governance:
Treaty
End Date:
Current
Begin date:
1989
The Montreal Protocol entered into force on January 1st, 1989. Since then a variety of amendments have been proposed and accepted which have tended to accelerate the rate of implementation.
Governance trigger:
slow continuous change
Governance system description:
The protocol, enacted on January 1, 1989, is a universally adopted treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by gradually reducing and, in some cases, eliminating the production of a variety of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) through restrictions on emissions by particular industries regulated by nation-states. The treaty was convened under the authority of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone and has been revised seven times. it is expected that the cumulative reductions in the emission of ODS will begin to have an impact on global ozone concentrations toward the middle of the twenty-first century (Ravishankara 2009).
Governance scale:
International Regime
Centralization:
Highly centralized (4)
Name:
Pre-Montreal Protocol Ozone Governance
details
End Date:
1989
Begin date:
1977
There is no clear date for the beginning of ozone goverance. We have chosen 1977 as this is the start of our first snapshot as this is the year that international scientific efforts began with a conference of experts from 32 countries.
Governance trigger:
slow continuous change
Policies arose as a result of increasing recognition of problems associated with ozone depletion, and their link to ozone depleting substances. There was no direct trigger, although it is unlikely that any policies would have been implemented without the growth of scientific knowledge.
Governance system description:
The Pre-Montreal Protocol Governance system is not a coherent system, but rather an uncoordinated amalgam of policies in nation states. It is not a polycentric system in the classic sense given that there are no overlapping spheres of authority.
Governance scale:
State-based policy
National legislation determined whether or not a state governed ODS emissions.
Centralization:
Highly decentralized (1)
Any governance of ozone depleting substances was either highly idiosyncratic or non-existent, governed only by market forces. The US for instance banned the nonessential use of CFSs as aerosol propellants in 1978.

Environmental Commons

Name:
Ozone Depleting Substances
details
Commons unit size:
Microscopic (1)
Commons mobility:
High (3)
Toxicity:
Moderate (2)
Point/Nonpoint:
Nonpoint source
Residence Time:
Multiple years (3)
Commons spatial extent:
 
global in extent
Environmental medium:
Atmospheric
Commons heterogeneity:
Low (1)
for coding purposes can be seen as continuously distributed, although there are regions with more or less accumulation.
Intra annual predictability:
High (3)
Inter annual predictability:
High (3)
Producers all know what is being produced.
Technical substitute:
Yes
These substances are being phased out through the use of substitute products.
Commons boundaries:
Clear boundaries (3)
global in the stratosphere.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
These are man-made and can be created at any time.
Commons accessibility:
Somewhat accessible (2)
There are still a number of ODS legally available. However, many such products have been removed from the market.
Name:
Ozone
details
Productivity:
Poorly productive (1)
Commons aggregation:
Not Applicable
Biotic:
No
Commons unit size:
Microscopic (1)
Ozone is effectively invisible.
Commons mobility:
Not Applicable
Commons spatial extent:
Missing
Environmental medium:
Atmospheric
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
There is some variability in the distribution of atmospheric ozone. For instance the ozone hole tends to emerge at the poles due to circulation patterns.
Intra annual predictability:
High (3)
Inter annual predictability:
High (3)
Technical substitute:
Yes
The benefits of ozone (i.e. UV protection) can be replaced with sunscreen.
Commons boundaries:
Clear boundaries (3)
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
Ozone is a renewable abiotic compound, but this occurs via slow regenerative processes
Commons accessibility:
Not Applicable

Component Interactions

Biophysical Interaction

Ozone-ODS Post-Protocol Interaction

1989-01-01 - ongoing
Coded: 2012-01-01

Is Polluted:
Ozone (Environmental Common)
Pollutes:
Ozone Depleting Substances (Environmental Common)

Governance Interaction

Montreal Protocol Post Protocol

1989-01-01 - ongoing
Coded: 2012-01-01

Governing Organization:
Ozone Secretariat (Actor)
Governs:
Montreal Protocol (Governance System)
Primary:
Ozone Depleting Substances (Environmental Common)
Governing Organization:
Ozone Nation States (Actor)
Commons User:
Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers (Actor)

Governance Interaction

Ozone-ODS-Pre protocol

1975-01-01 to 1989-01-01

Commons User:
Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers (Actor)
Governs:
Pre-Montreal Protocol Ozone Governance (Governance System)
Primary:
Ozone Depleting Substances (Environmental Common)
Governing Organization:
Ozone Nation States (Actor)

Biophysical Interaction

Ozone-ODS-Pre protocol

1975-01-01 to 1989-01-01

Is Polluted:
Ozone (Environmental Common)
Pollutes:
Ozone Depleting Substances (Environmental Common)