• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Case

SummaryThe Great Australian Bight Marine Park is located in the Great Australian Bight stretching from 200km west of Ceduna in South Australia following the coast to the Western Australian border. The Great Australian Bight Marine Park (Commonwealth Waters) was originally proclaimed in 1998, under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975. The first management plan came into force on 17 May 2000 and ceased to have effect on 16 May 2005. The second management plan came into operation on 17 May 2005 and expired on 16 May 2012. The snap-shot for this case is from the first management plan came into effect until the second management plan expired (17 May 2000 – 16 May 2012). The Great Australian Bight region supports high levels of diversity and endemism, particularly among red algae, ascidians, molluscs, echinoderms, and bryozoans. This is attributed to range of physical factors, including the continent's long period of geological isolation, the large width of the continental shelf, a persistent high-energy environment, warm water intrusion via the Leeuwin current, and cold-water upwellings in the east (Poore, 1995). Sediments of the wide continental shelf of the Bight are also important as they preserve a record of global climatic and oceanographic changes along the southern temperate Australian coastline because there have been no major above ground water courses to deposit land based sediments. The Great Australian Bight Marine Park (Commonwealth Waters) comprises two overlapping zones that form a T shape: a Marine Mammal Protection Zone, which runs parallel to the Great Australian Bight State Marine Park and was intended primarily to provide for undisturbed calving for the southern right whale and protection of Australian sea-lion colonies, and a Benthic Protection Zone, which is 20 nm wide and extends 200 nm offshore that was intended to protect a sample of the unique and diverse plants and animals that live on and are associated with the ocean floor of the Great Australian Bight. Both zones contribute towards the protection of species of conservation significance and extend to 1000m below the seabed to protect the unique sediment structure. Commercial fishing (excluding demersal trawling) and recreational fishing are allowed within the GABCMR. However, during May 1 and October 31, which is the southern right whales calving period in the area, non-commercial vessel access and all activities (scuba, fishing, etc) are prohibited in the Marine Mammal Protection Zone, including where it overlaps with the Benthic Protection Zone. The administration, management and control of the GABMP (CW) are the function of the Director of National Parks, a corporation under the EPBC Act.
Statuspublic
TeamIndonesia MPA team
Start Date2015-06-03 14:20:14 -0400
Coding Complete?No
SectorMarine protected areas
ProjectSESMAD
Data Source(s)Secondary data
CountryAustralia
External BiophysicalThe GABMP (CW) is thought to be vulnerable to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated changes in ocean circulation and hence productivity, which is anticipated to potentially impact southern right whale populations, breeding success and food availability. However, these impacts have not yet been recorded.
External SocialSouthern Bluefin Tuna fishery operations in the Benthic Protection Zone of the GABMP have decreased from up to 25 % to less than 11% (Ward et al. 2003).
Snapshots2000 - 2012: during this snapshot two similar management plans (from 2000 - 2005 and from 2005 - 2012) were used to manage reserve activities - there were no significant changes between the two management plans so they have been coded as one governance system. Coding ended in 2012 when the reserve size increased and number of zones and zone type changed (also see comment in modeling issues below).
Timeline1975 - National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act passed 1982 - Law of the Sea Convention 1995 - State Marine Park whale sanctuary established under the Fisheries Act 1982 (SA) 1996 - State Marine National Park established under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (SA) 1998 - Australia's Oceans Policy - an oceans governance framework that embraced ecosystem-based and integrated approaches to policy implementation (across sectors and jurisdictions) 1998- GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975 2000 - National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975 replaced by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation EPBC Act 1999 2000 - 2005 - GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2004 - Proclamation for the Marine Park amended to make changes to the boundary description to take account of current mapping practice and to correct minor technical problems and errors 2005 - RMPs (Regional Marine Plans) were established under section 176 of the EPBC Act 1999 and Marine Bioregional Plans (MBPs) replaced RMPs. By linking the marine plans to the EPBC Act, the environmental focus became a key priority for the marine plans. 2005 - 2012 - GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Management Plan 2012 - Great Australian Bight Commonwealth Marine Reserve proclaimed on November 2012 to replace the Great Australian Bight Marine Park (Commonwealth waters). Increase in area and change in the number and type of zones.
Modeling IssuesCoding for this case ended in 2012 when the GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) was extended from 19,395 km2 to 45,926 km2 (now called the Great Australian Bight Commonwealth Marine Reserve (GABCMR)). The zoning also changed from two zones to three and includes a Marine National Park Zone, a Multiple Use Zone and a Special Purpose Zone. Currently transitional arrangements apply until a management plan comes into effect and under this arrangement there are no changes on the water for users of the new areas added to the GABCMR or to the arrangements that existed prior to the establishment of the new reserve areas. Petroleum exploration has not been coded for the case as it falls outside of the snapshot. Planned petroleum exploration could be expected to have a negative impact on the case and concerns have been raised about the impacts on marine life and the environment. Petroleum exploration began in the Bight Basin in the 1960s and there are two drill holes from exploration in the 1970s that are located within the BPZ of the GABMP (CW). Geoscience Australia completed a seafloor dredging survey in 2007 with the hope of reviving interest in petroleum exploration in the area and there are now 5 exploration acreages located around or in the BBZ of the GABMP(CW) with drilling of exploration wells planned for 2017.
Surveys
Theories

Visualization

Show Render

Hide Render


Attached Components

Actors

Name:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers
details
Past collaboration:
High (3)
Collaboration across sectors are evident through membership in the CFA, which comprises voting membership covering 90% of Commonwealth fishery-specific industry Associations and whose membership represents over 95% of the Gross Value of Production (GVP) of Commonwealth managed fisheries. CFA was formed in April 2002, so this collaboration was not evident for the entire snapshot coded for this case.
Costs of exit:
Yes
The costs of leaving this group can be high due to the level of infrastructural investment involved - statutory fishing rights, fishing permits, licensing fees, boats, fishing equipment.
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Yes
Yes - if group members (commercial fishers) incur greater costs (e.g. more licenses, better boats and technology) they have access to catch more fish and incur greater benefits. Even though the production volume for the wild-catch sector decreased by 4% the gross value of Australian commercial fisheries production increased by 3% and the gross value of aquaculture production increased from $100 million to $1.1 billion (which includes southern bluefin tuna wild-catch input to the South Australian tuna farming sector) (Australian fisheries statistics 2012).
Interest heterogeneity:
Low (1)
Members of this group would have similar interests in promoting economically viable fisheries, increasing profit and having sustainable fish stocks.
Leadership:
["Formal leader", "Informal leader"]
There is no formal leader of the commercial fishing sector as a whole. However, some commercial fishers are members of CFA and WFSA which has formal, elected representatives that promote fisher interests, although, not all commercial fishers join these groups.
Leadership authority:
Medium (2)
The CFA is recognized by AFMA (Australian Government agency responsible for the efficient management and sustainable use of Commonwealth fish resources) as the peak body representing the the collective rights, responsibilities and interests of a diverse commercial fishing industry in Commonwealth-regulated fisheries (Commonwealth Wild Capture Fisheries and Commonwealth fishing industry). CFA participates in decision-making processes but no formal co-management arrangement between state and industry exists which limits the commercial fishers' authority, although, there is increased interest in developing a Co-Management Program for Australian Commonwealth fisheries (Mazur 2010).
Actor group trust:
High (3)
No evidence was found on level of trust between commercial fishers but group interests are similar and trust is assumed to be high. Trust within members of the CFA appear to be high as cooperation between members is visible from newletters and social media reports.
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
Stated in the CFA modus operandi, the association meets regularly with internal (voting members, associate members, ordinary members, staff and board) and external constituents (government agencies, environmental groups, industry (e.g. oil and gas)).
Remote communication:
More than once a year (5)
A membership engagement policy statement (2014) specified the need to convey information from committees to CFA membership and that the use of emails and electronic newsletters would be used as methods of communication as frequently as possible. It also stated that CFA utilizes emails and newsletters as a speedy and cost effective way of communicating to members.
Leadership accountability:
Medium (2)
CFA staff and board have to report the outcomes of the modus operandi to the membership that includes: quarterly reports, an annual review, annual financial accounts and an annual report. Although, only some fishers are members of the Association.
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
Members of this actor group engage in formal coordination through meetings (AGM, General meetings) organized by the Commonwealth Fisheries Association (CFA), the Great Australian Bight Industry Association (GABIA), the AFMA Commission and Wildcatch Fisheries South Australia (WFSA). Each fishery is covered by a AFMA management advisory committee and a resource assessment group. These groups allow for the exchange of information on fish stocks along with providing an avenue for consultation between various stakeholders in formal meetings. The Commonwealth Fisheries Association, whose membership represents over 95% of the Gross Value of Production (GVP) of Commonwealth managed fisheries, engages in informal coordination through newsletters and Facebook postings. Informal coordination would also take place at landing sites and at markets.
Name:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks
details
Past collaboration:
High (3)
The Director of National Parks and the senior executives are working under the same guidelines and for similar objectives.
Costs of exit:
No
Group members are government employees so it should not be difficult to leave this group. Peter Cochrane, who served as Director of National Parks from 1999 - 2013, was replaced by Sally Barnes and also in 2013, Assistant Secretary Mark Taylor of the Parks and Protected Areas Programs Branch was transferred to another department and replaced by Dr. Barbara Musso.
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Not Applicable
Interest heterogeneity:
Low (1)
The holder of the office of Director of National Parks and 4 senior executives provide leadership in Parks Australia (Annual Report 2011 - 2012). Three senior executives are split into distinct branches: Parks and Biodiversity Science, Parks and Protected Areas Program, and Parks Operations and Tourism. In addition to the Parks Australia executive team, the fourth senior executive in the department's Marine Division is responsible, under the delegation from the Director of National Parks, for managing the Commonwealth marine reserves. Collaboration is high among the 4 executives as they are all part of the federal environment portfolio and are to support the Director. Parks Australia Executive includes the Director of National Parks and the 4 executives. Each of the branches report to the Director of National Parks.
Leadership:
["Formal leader"]
The holder of the office of the Director of National Parks is appointed by the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Leadership authority:
Medium (2)
The EPBC Act requires the Director to perform functions and exercise powers in accordance with any directions given by the Minister of the Environment, unless the Act provides otherwise. The Minister of the Environment is responsible for the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies (CAC) Act 1997 and may, via a General Policy Order, also notify the Director under the CAC Act of general government policies that apply to the Director. The Director has authority to make organizational and operational decisions under the legal structure of the EPBC Act.
Actor group trust:
Missing
No information was fou The executive team -- Director of National Parks and the 4 senior executives -- meet regularly to address strategic directions and current issues.
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
The executive team, which includes the Director and the 4 senior executives, and senior staff meet regularly to address strategic directions and current issues. Marine Division staff also participate in regular meetings, advising the Director on Commonwealth marine reserve issues.
Remote communication:
More than once a year (5)
Where appropriate, video and telephone links are used to liaise with executive and senior staff that are located in remote locations. Coordination between managers and the executive team includes regular phone link-ups.
Leadership accountability:
Low (1)
The Director of National Parks is accountable to Federal and State governments respectively rather than to employees (members of the group).
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
The executive team, which includes the Director and the 4 senior executives, and senior staff meet regularly to address strategic directions and current issues. Marine Division staff also participate in regular meetings, advising the Director on Commonwealth marine reserve issues. Where appropriate, video and telephone links are used to liaise with executive and senior staff that are located in remote locations. Coordination between managers and the executive team includes regular phone link-ups and an annual Parks Australia Forum that involves all senior managers. The Parks Australia Forum would also allow for informal coordination opportunities. Staff also participate in consultative committees to support internal management which would provide opportunity for both formal and information coordination.

Governance Systems

Name:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012
details
Type of formal governance:
Management plan
2000-2005, and 2005-2012. The park is managed by the Director of National Parks in the Department of the Environment. The plan describes all activities allowed and the provisions in place to manage those activities.
End Date:
2012
The second management plan being coded in this case expired on 16 May 2012, so the snapshot ends in 2012.
Begin date:
2000
The first management plan came into force on 17 May 2000
Governance trigger:
slow continuous change
The Park was declared for: the preservation of the area in its natural condition; and the encouragement and regulation of the appropriate use, appreciation and enjoyment of the area by the public.
Governance system description:
Management Plans (2000-2005, and 2005-2012).
The administration, management and control of the GABMP are the function of the Director of National Parks, a corporation under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Director is responsible for preparing management plans for the reserve, which establish the framework to provide for the protection and conservation of the reserve, while describing how activities in the reserve will be managed. The management plan is an essential part of the regulation of the GABMP and it allows a range of uses of the Park that would otherwise be prohibited by the EPBC Act. Management Plans, once allowed by both Houses of Commonwealth Parliament, sets the prescriptions of what can and cannot happen within the MPA for a period of 5 - 7 years. The prescriptions are enforceable via relevant legislation.
Governance scale:
State-based policy
The EPBC Act (1999) is the Australian Government key piece of national environmental legislation which provides for the preparation of management plans. The EPBC Act requires a management plan for a Commonwealth reserve
Centralization:
Somewhat centralized (3)
The Director of National Parks is responsible under the EPBC Act for the administration, management and control of Commonwealth reserves and conservation zones. The Director is assisted in performing this function by the staff of Parks Australia. A Steering Committee of Australian and South Australian government agencies guides the day-to-day management of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park. However, the Director retains direct control of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park (Commonwealth Waters). At the time of preparation of the 2005 - 2012 Management Plan, the committee consisted of representatives from the following agencies: -Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage -South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage -Primary Industries and Resources South Australia District Council of Ceduna -South Australian Tourism Commission -Australian Fisheries Management Authority At the time of preparation of the 2005 - 2012 Plan, a non-government Consultative Committee advised the Australian and South Australian governments about management of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park. The Consultative Committee represents general community interests, Indigenous interests, commercial interests and scientific interests in the Park and the State Park. It is intended to broaden the Consultative Committee to include representatives of the petroleum industry.
Metric diversity:
High: Many metrics for success (3)
The Plan of Management is written to conform to the Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) best practice model for performance reporting in natural resource management (ANZECC 1997) with an emphasis on measurable performance indicators, targets and monitoring. The Plan of Management is a statutory document intended to be in force for a long period of time, so therefore, the performance assessment details are to be presented in a separate document to allow for new knowledge and feedback to management during the duration of the Plan. Wherever possible, the research requirements are to be closely linked to the performance assessment requirements of the Park. Criteria and Priorities for the GABMP Performance Indicators are outlined in the 2000 - 2005 Management Plan with primary goals for each protection zone and the whole park along with possible research and performance assessment priorities. In the 2005 - 2012 Management Plan, a Performance Assessment Framework was developed by the Director of National Parks that consists of seven Key Result Areas and sets out prescriptions on how each one will be managed.
MPA primary goal (in practice):
["Species of conservation concern", "Protection of migratory species"]
The MMPZ of the GABMP (CW) was implemented to protect important calving grounds of the Endangered southern right whale along with the Australian sea lion, which is listed as Vulnerable. In this zone vessel traffic is prohibited during southern right whale calving, from May 1 - October 31. Recreatioinal activities and commercial fishing is permitted in this zone during the remainder of the year but demersal trawling and mining activities (including exploration activities) are not. The BPZ of the GABMP (CW) was implemented to protect a sample of the unique benthic flora and fauna and sediments that are found in the GAB region. Even though this is an aim of the management plan, mining activities (including exploration activities) are permitted in this zone. The management plan for the GABMP (CW) indicates that activities in this zone will be considered on a case by case basis and stringent conditions will be imposed, by which companies must demonstrate that their activities will not compromise or threaten the conservation values being protected in the GABMP (CW). Currently there are 5 exploration acreages located around or in the BPZ of the GABMP (CW) and drilling of exploration wells is planned to start in 2017. This may impact the biodiversity of the benthic flora and fauna and acoustic disturbance generated from seismic exploration may impact cetaceans in the GABMP (CW).
MPA motivation:
["Ecological value"]
The Park was declared for two reasons: firstly, to complement the State Marine Park for the primary purpose of protecting the endangered southern right whale and rare Australian sea lion, and secondly, to preserve a representative strip of the unique seafloor (benthic) environment in line with the development of a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas under Australia’s Oceans Policy.
MPA protection:
["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]
The Marine Mammal Protection Zone (MMPZ) provides protection particularly for the southern right whale and Australian sea lion by: -Closing the MMPZ to all vessel access from May 1 - October 31 every year, a key time for southern right whale calving -Requiring a permit for commercial fishing outside of the seasonal closure. -Prohibiting mining activities (including seismic surveys) Considerations for the granting of permits for commercial activities, while focusing primarily on potential impacts on the values for which the Park was declared, will also consider broader biodiversity conservation issues and species for which the Commonwealth has national and international responsibilities In the Benthic Protection Zone (BPZ) there are to be no activities that adversely impact on the benthos, the subsoil beneath the benthos or associated flora and fauna. Demersal trawl fishing is not allowed, but other commercial fishing is allowed in accordance with a permit, and application for mineral exploration and extraction activities may be considered for approval by the Director of National Parks. Approval of mineral activities are also required from the Governor-General.
MPA internal natural boundaries:
Low (1)
The MMPZ and the BPZ of the GABMP (CW) are not isolated by habitat boundaries. The MMPZ is adjacent to the South Australian GABMP (State) and extends from 3 nautical miles to approximately 12 nautical miles offshore and the BPZ is a 20 nautical miles wide zone that extends to the edge of Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone.
Distance to markets:
Between 100km-1000km (3)
Port Lincoln is the largest nearby city and is home to the tuna fishing fleets of the GAB.
MPA budget:
113723 $US
This is the financial operating cost for the GABMP (CW) reported in the 2011 - 2012 State of the Parks Report. Operating costs include relevant annual business agreements, aerial surveillance and incident management. It excludes services provided by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority and the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service.
PA IUCN strict zones:
0 %
The whole Park is IUCN Category VI 'managed resource protected area'
MPA connectivity:
Partially (2)
The State marine mammal protection zone was considered in the design and implementation of Commonwealth marine mammal protection zone.
PA CAR principles:
Partially (2)
CAR principles are well recognised in Australia and have been talked about regarding the GAB. However, in reality when this MPA was designated there was not enough knoweldge to know if the MPA was fulfilling these principles, so coded as partially. At the national level the goal of a "Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative System of Reserves" for Australia is endorsed by the Commonwealth and State and Territory Governments and the Australian Guidelines for Establishing the National Reserve System include information on processes used to work towards a comprehensive, adequate and representative system of reserves (Commonwealth of Australia, 1999). Although, there was a lack of information on the benthic communities of the GAB region at the time of the establishment of the GABMP (CW) and the location of the BPZ was not based on quantitative ecological data.
MPA migratory benefit:
Yes
A large portion of the population of southern right whales migrate through the GABMP (CW) to the near shore waters of southern Australian at the Head of Bight to calve and nurse their young (Burnell and Bryden 1997; Burnell 1999; Bannister et al. 1999). The Marine Mammal Protection Zone (MMPZ) of the GABMP (CW) was established to complement the State Marine Park for the purposes of providing undisturbed calving habitat for the southern right whale from May 1 - October 31 and to protect Australian sea lion colonies. From May 1 - October 31, vessels in the MMPZ are prohibited and aircrafts must follow speed and proximity regulations. Other migratory species that utilize habitat in this zone would also benefit from these regulations. According to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act Protected Matters Search Tool there are 22 threatened species and 27 migratory species (dolphin, turtles, fish, birds) that may occur in the area (Pinzone 2013). These species would be subject to potential anthropogenic pressures such as commercial fishing, pollution, ship strikes, entanglement, and petroleum exploration and would also benefit from GABMP (CW) regulations that address these pressures.
MPA migratory life history:
Breeding and foraging
Provides undisturbed calving habitat for the southern right whale and foraging habitat for other migratory cetaceans, southern bluefin tuna, and birds
MPA threats to migratory sp:
["Habitat destruction", "Other"]
The direct threats to migratory species in the areas of the GABMP (CW) are: - Entanglement in marine debris or fishing and aquaculture equipment - Chemical Pollution - If petroleum exploration is initiated as planned for 2017 in the BPZ of the GABMP (CW), pollution from chemicals used in exploration drilling and petroleum production along with oil spills may present a threat to migratory species of the GAB. - Climate change - Modelling associated with global climate change predicts that there will be reduced productivity of Southern Ocean ecosystems and changes to climate and oceanographic processes may also lead to decreased productivity and different patterns of prey distribution and availability.There is also evidence that climate variability affects reproductive output in southern right whales calving in Australia (Leaper et al. 2006), with El Nino events being shown to lead to decreased calf production in a later year. A strong correlation has also been found between the number of right whale calves born and changes in sea-surface temperature, with calf output declining with an increase in water temperature (Leaper et al. 2006). - Physical injury and death from a ship strike - Acoustic pollution - from commercial and recreational vessel noise and seismic survey activity
MPA migratory threats and redux:
Protection of a key life-stage for the southern right whale
The MMPZ in the GABMP (CW) is 3,875 km2 and provides regulations to allow southern right whales to calve undisturbed.
Social-ecological fit:
Medium (2)
The institutional arrangement of this governance system recognizes the various habitat requirements that are associated with the species it aims to protect and conserve. However, both zones (MMPZ and the BPZ) are multiple use zones (IUCN Category VI) and permit activities that may negatively impact the species and habitat the system is designed to protect and the governance system does not match the spatial distribution of migratory species in the GABMP (CW).
Governance knowledge use:
["Scientific knowledge", "Local/traditional knowledge"]
Scientific knowledge - Scientific knowledge on southern right whale and Australian sea lion habitat was used in the development of the MMPZ of the GABMP (CW). There was less known about the benthic flora and fauna of the GAB region at the time of Park designation but since then, at least 3 benthic surveys have been completed to learn more about the communities found inside and outside of the BPZ and to determine if this zone is representative sample of the GAB region. Scientific knowledge and local/traditional knowledge - A Steering Committee of Australian and South Australian government agencies guides the day-to-day management of the GABMP (CW). At the time of preparation of the 2005 - 2012 Management Plan, the committee consisted of representatives from both State and Commonwealth agencies (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage, Primary Industries and Resources South Australia), municipal government (District Council of Ceduna), and fishery and tourism commissions (South Australian Tourism Commission, Australian Fisheries Management Authority). There is also a non-government Consultative Committee that advises the Australian and South Australian governments about management of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park. The Consultative Committee represents general community interests, Indigenous interests, commercial interests and scientific interests in the Park and the State Park and includes representatives of the petroleum and fishery industries, Indigenous peoples, scientists (SARDI, CSIRO and environmental non-government organizations (The Wilderness Society).
MPA IUCN somewhat strict zones:
0 %
None of the GABMP (CW) is covered by the IUCN categories III and IV.
MPA IUCN sustainable zones :
100 %
All of the Park is IUCN VI. Commercial fishing is allowed in the majority of the Park
MPA threats:
Petroleum exploration and extraction; Commercial fishing; Climate change
Petroleum exploration and extraction - chemical and acoustic pollution, oil spills, acoustic, habitat destruction Commercial fishing - overfishing, habitat destruction, entangled of marine animals, ship strikes, by-catch Climate change - changes to productivity, climate and oceanographic processes
Governance system spatial extent:
19395
The GABMP = 19,395 km2
Horizontal coordination:
 

Environmental Commons

Name:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna
details
Productivity:
Poorly productive (1)
The SBT is long-lived and highly fecund but characteristics such as slow-growth, late onset of sexual maturity (at approximately 11-12 years of age), the presence of a single spawning ground, and highly migratory behaviour (exposing the stock to multiple fishing fleets) make it vulnerable to exploitation and potentially slow to recover from fishing (Collette and Nauen 1983; Pogonoski et al. 2002; BRS 2008; Gunn et al. 2008).
Commons aggregation:
Population
A single spawning area, morphological uniformity, distribution of larvae and tag return data suggest that SBT area a single population (Caton 1991; Grewe et al. 1997; Farley and Davis 1998; Patterson et al. 2008) High vagility in relation to the geographical distribution also indicates limited potential for population differentiation (Caton1994).
Biotic:
Yes
Commons unit size:
Medium (3)
SBT can reach 2.25m fork length and weigh >200 kg, although they more commonly reach 1.80m fork length and 100kg (Yearsely et al. 1999; BRS 2008).
Commons mobility:
High (3)
SBT are highly migratory, occurring throughout the southern hemisphere oceans (Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans) between 30–50° S, though the species is mainly found in the eastern Indian Ocean and in the south-west Pacific Ocean (BRS 2008, TSSC 2010). They make long distance migrations to a single spawning ground in the north-east Indian Ocean (BRS 2008). The species can travel up to 70 kilometres per hour while feeding (TSSC 2010).
Commons spatial extent:
19395
This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (CW) (2012) that this environmental commons uses but SBT are highly migratory and are found throughout the southern hemisphere oceans between 30–50° S.
Environmental medium:
Oceanic
Oceans of the southern hemisphere between 30–50° S.
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
Low Commons Heterogeneity - Sexually mature SBT congregate in a single spawning ground located in the north-east Indian Ocean between Java and Western Australia (Caton, 1991; NSW DPI FSC n.d.; BRS 2008). Spawning occurs from August - April with a peak from October - February (Honda et al. 2010). SBT are highly migratory, however they congregate in a single spawning ground therefore coded as moderate heterogeneity. High Commons Heterogeneity - For the rest of year the tuna are distributed throughout the south-west and south-east Atlantic Ocean, eastern and western Indian Ocean and the south-west Pacific Ocean (Collette et al. 2011). Tuna are suggested to congregate at seamounts, lumps and reefs in the Great Australian Bight where prey species also congregate, and to move depending on water masses, such as influxes of nutrient rich sub-Antarctic waters, and sea temperatures (Fujioka et al. 2010)
Intra annual predictability:
High (3)
The availability or prevalence of this commons is predictable within years - there is little seasonal variation in commons availability.
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
The availability or prevalence of SBT are predicted using scientific stock assessment methods. There is controversy over management actions and initiatives (e.g. implications of alternative interpretations of catch per unit effort) for bluefin tuna (Butterworth et al. 2003) but if a consistent methodology is followed relative magnitudes can be assessed.
Technical substitute:
No
Commons boundaries:
Somewhat unclear boundaries (2)
SBT have a circumglobal distribution and are found in oceans of the southern hemisphere, from the tropics to the sub-Antarctic (30–50° S). A single spawning ground is known, in the north-eastern Indian Ocean between Java and Western Australia (7 to 20 degrees south). The juveniles are thought to ride the Leeuwin Current down the coast of Western Australia to spend summer months in south Western Australia and the Great Australian Bight region with an unknown proportion heading westwards towards South Africa (Honda et al. 2010; NSW DPI FSC n.d.; Farley and Davis 1998). Two to four year old SBT school near the surface during the summer months (December - April) in the coastal waters of the Great Australian Bight and spend winter months either in deeper, temperate waters or seasonally migrate between the south coast of Australia and the central Indian Ocean (CCSBT 2009). After 5 years of age, SBT move offshore to deeper waters, swimming between feeding grounds, areas of high productivity spread between New Zealand and South Africa (Farley et al. 2007). As mature adults they join the spawning migration to the tropics below Java.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
Renewable but vulnerable to exploitation and potentially slow to recover from fishing.
Commons accessibility:
Very accessible (3)
Easily accessible for modern oceanic fishing fleets that target them. Two - four year old SBT school near the surface waters of the Great Australian Bight and are targeted by the South Australian purse seine fishery.
Commons indicator:
["Status of species targeted by fisheries", "Status of highly migratory species"]
Status of species targeted by fisheries - Juvenile SBT (usually between 2-3 years old) are caught in the Great Australian Bight using purse seine methods, towed to Port Lincoln where they are transferred to grow-out cages, and then fed intensively for 6-8 months before being harvested and exported to Japan. More than 95% of Australia's total catch of this species is taken by this method (TSSC 2010). SBT are targeted throughout the rest of its global range by pelagic longliners that harvest fish from all age classes, from juveniles to adults over 12 years old (Phillips et al. 2009). SBT are also a migratory species (although not used as a proxy for this in this case) - they have a circumglobal distribution and are found throughout oceans of the southern hemisphere, from the tropics to the sub-Antarctic (30–50° S).
Name:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale
details
Productivity:
Poorly productive (1)
Southern right whales reach sexual maturity at an average of 7 - 8 years of age. Female whales have a gestation period of ~12 months and on average calve every 3 - 4 years. This triennial calving cycle has resulted in cohort structured breeding groups in Australia, with peaks in abundance of the primary breeding group every 3 years. A difference in the calving dynamics at the Head of Bight aggregation, compared to the rest of the south-west population has been reported, with more 4-year inter-calf intervals and fewer 2-year inter-calf intervals recorded than for the wider population (Bannister et al. 2011). The recovery and re-occupancy rates for the south-western population is estimated to be increasing at ~7% per annum (Bannister et al. 2011), which is near or at maximum population growth. The most recent estimated mean increase in the number of southern right whales at the Head of Bight aggregation; using cliff-top count data is ~5.5% per annum (Charlton et al. 2014).
Commons aggregation:
Population
The southern right whale is 1 of 3 species of large, baleen whales classified as right whales and belonging to the genus Eubalaena. They are closely related to the northern hemisphere right whales but the species are reproductively isolated from one another by the geographic separation of calving grounds and asynchronous breeding seasons (Townsend 1935). Australian southern right whale populations have different mtDNA haplotype frequencies from other southern hemisphere populations although nuclear DNA structuring is low (Baker et al. 1999; Carroll et al. 2011; Patenaude et al. 2007). Southern right whales in Australian waters comprise two populations, one in the south-west and one in the south-east, both of which are genetically differentiated (based on mtDNA haplotype frequencies) (Carroll et al. 2011). The Australian population is estimated at 3500 individuals with 2900 of those occurring in the south-west region between Cape Leeuwin and Ceduna during breeding season (Bannister et al. 2011), and make up about 83% of the total estimated Australian southern right whale population.
Biotic:
Yes
Commons unit size:
Large (4)
Southern right whales can reach a maximum length of 17.5 meters and weigh up to 80 tonnes. Females are generally 1 - 2 meters larger than males.
Commons mobility:
High (3)
Southern right whales have a circumpolar distribution between latitudes of 16 degrees South and 65 degrees South. Between May and October the Australian population of southern right whales migrates between higher latitude feeding grounds (between 40 degrees South and 65 degrees South) to calving/nursery grounds in coastal Australian waters. It is thought that in the spring, the southern right whales move offshore from the Great Australian Bight to higher latitude foraging areas and down towards the ice-edge off Antarctica.
Commons spatial extent:
19395
This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) (2012) that this environmental commons uses but Australian populations of the southern right whale move between Antarctica and southern Australia during their seasonal migration.
Environmental medium:
Oceanic
Calving and non-calving whales are found in the Southern Ocean between 16 degrees South and 65 degrees South in the summer (November to April) and the near shore waters of southern Australia in the winter (May to October). On the Australian coast, southern right whales are known to use widely separated coastal areas (200 - 1500 kilometres apart) within a season (Burnell 2001; Charlton et al. 2014) .
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
Southern right whales are a migratory species and the pathways of southern right whales between their main foraging grounds in the Southern Ocean and the calving grounds in the Great Australian Bight region are poorly understood. The movements of males, non-breeding females and sub-adults are less understood than breeding females, which return to the same coastal calving beaches every 3 - 4 years. Finding a southern right whale at any one point during the summer months when whale migration is occurring is not guaranteed. However, female whales and their calves are observed frequently from the cliffs at the Head of Bight in the near shore waters of southern Australian during the winter months.
Intra annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Southern right whales are a migratory species and the movements of males, non-breeding females and sub-adults are less understood than breeding females. Finding a southern right whale at any one point during the summer months when whale migration is occurring is not guaranteed. However, female whales and their calves are observed frequently from the cliffs at the Head of Bight in the near shore waters of southern Australian during the winter months.
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Females demonstrate high site fidelity, returning to the same calving grounds every 3 - 4 years (Burnell 2001). Females have been shown to alter selected calving habitat in years of high abundance at the Head of Bight (Burnell, 2012). Female on average calve every 3 - 4 years and this triennial calving cycle has resulted in cohort structured breeding groups in Australia, with peaks in abundance of the primary breeding group every 3 years. Annual population or cohort sizes and compositions in Australian waters reflect the 3-4 year calving cycle of females and as a result, full population assessments are only possible from extended time series of population abundance indices.
Technical substitute:
No
There is no technological substitute that can take the place of southern right whales in the GAMP (Commonwealth Waters) from an ecological or economic standpoint.
Commons boundaries:
Somewhat unclear boundaries (2)
Australian coastal movements are reasonably well understood but little is known of migration travel, non-coastal movements and offshore habitat use. The whales forage and feed offshore in the summer months (from November to April) between at least 32 degrees South and 65 degrees South (Australia 2012) and have been observed as far south as the Antarctic (Bannister et al. 1999). From May to October, the breeding females occupy near-shore coastal calving and nursery areas that occur between 16 degrees South and 52 degrees South (IWC 2001; Werner et al. 2011).
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
Renewable but southern right whales are slow to reproduce and have low regeneration rates.
Commons accessibility:
Somewhat accessible (2)
The increase in vessel technology such as radar and GPS make is easier to locate the whales although; most whale watching takes place from land at the Head of Bight cliffs.
Commons indicator:
["Status of highly migratory species"]
Status of highly migratory species - The whales forage and feed offshore in the summer months (from November to April) between at least 32 degrees South and 65 degrees South (Australia 2012) and have been observed as far south as the Antarctic (Bannister et al. 1999). From May to October, the breeding females occupy near-shore coastal calving and nursery areas that occur between 16 degrees South and 52 degrees South (IWC 2001; Werner et al. 2011).
Name:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion
details
Productivity:
Poorly productive (1)
Lower level of fecundity when compared to annually breeding pinnipeds, such as the conspecific NZ fur seal
Commons aggregation:
Population
Biotic:
Yes
Commons unit size:
Medium (3)
Males can become very large, 185–225 cm in length and weighing 180–250 kg. Females are smaller, 130–185 cm at in length and weighing 65–100 kg.
Commons mobility:
Medium (2)
Commons spatial extent:
 
Environmental medium:
Oceanic
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
Intra annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Duration of pupping season varies between colonies (from 5 - 8 months) - complicate assessing abundance (Shaughnessy et al. 2011)
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Supra-annual breeding cycle of 17-18 months = pupping seasons do not occur at the same time each year, making predictions difficult (Shaughnessy et al. 2011)
Technical substitute:
No
Commons boundaries:
 
Australian endemic species restricted to South and Western Australia. It has known breeding grounds, and foraging grounds are though to extend across a large proportion of the shelf adjacent to south Australia.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
Commons accessibility:
Very accessible (3)
Known haul out and breeding sites on land, and also often in near shore areas where fishing and recreational activities take place
Commons indicator:
["Ecosystem health and/or biodiversity"]
A higher trophic level species found to eat benthic dwelling fish, cephalopods, crustaceans and sharks (McIntosh et al. 2006).

Component Interactions

Governance Interaction

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion Interaction

2000-05-17 to 2012-05-16

Governs:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012 (Governance System)
Primary:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion (Environmental Common)
Governing Organization:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks (Actor)
Commons User:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers (Actor)

Governance Interaction

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna

2000-05-17 - ongoing
Coded: 2012-05-16

Primary:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna (Environmental Common)
Commons User:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers (Actor)
Governing Organization:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks (Actor)
Governs:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012 (Governance System)

Governance Interaction

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale Governance Interaction

2000-05-17 to 2012-05-16

Governing Organization:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks (Actor)
Primary:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale (Environmental Common)
Commons User:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers (Actor)
Governs:
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012 (Governance System)