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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Case

SummaryCenderwasih NP (also spelt Cendrawasih) has a total marine area of 13,852km2. It’s a multi-zone MPA and IUCN cat II. It was declared in 1993, but designated in 2002. The park also has a terrestrial portion. It is an important site of endemism: Cendrawasih Bay was isolated for a substantial period over the past 5 million years, resulting in high local endemism (11 endemic reef fishes and 18 endemic reef-building corals currently recognized), and significant genetic divergence of many marine invertebrate populations in the Bay. Cendrawasih Bay is relatively enclosed with limited exchange with the South Equatorial Current, which likely promotes larval retention. Tourism development is at the early stages in Cendrawasih Bay - there is no locally based tourism, although some liveaboard operators now offer trips (6–10 dive liveaboard vessels).
Statuspublic
TeamIndonesia MPA team
Start Date2015-01-27 17:37:30 -0500
Coding Complete?No
SectorMarine protected areas
ProjectSESMAD
Data Source(s)Secondary data
CountryIndonesia
External BiophysicalCenderwasih has almost no temperature variation, making it very susceptiable to small temperature variation. In 2010–2011 Cendrawasih Bay experienced large scale bleaching with some reefs recording 90% mortality (Mangubhai, Erdmann et al. 2012) In 2010 flooding caused a huge landslide and major sedimentation and mass coral mortality in Wodama Bay (in addition to loss of infrastructure and 145 deaths)
External SocialCenderwasih receives lower financial support and technical expertise from central goverenment (compared to other Parks adminsistered by Ministry of Forestry; Wiadnya et al. 2011) - although governement has now recognised potential of whale shark tourism and have bought in an enterance fee. Some tourism in the area - conflict between tourism and local communites, 'not seeing any benefit'. Liveaboards pay to visit bagan fisheries to see whale sharks - no money to local communities - created another source of conflict - no bagan fisheries and liveabords are paying some money to local communities.
Snapshots2002-current from when the park was designated (encompasses the time the management plan came into effect 2010).
TimelineThe park was declared as a Marine National Park on 2 September 1993 by the Decree of Ministry of Forestry No. 472/Kpts-II/1993, and designated in 2002. 2006 - RAP assessment by Conservation International found high levels of endemism and recommended the Park receive much higher priority by the Indonesian government in terms of funding and community engagement programs. 2009 - Management Plan produced (2010- 2029)
Modeling IssuesCommercial fishermen, including the bagan (baitfish) fishermen are a important actor group in Cendrawasih but they are from outside the Park (many bagan fishermen are from South Sulawesi) - local governement issue permits to bagans - National park and communities not happy! Now, pay a small fee to ). - we have only coded local fishermen in this case so far. Bagan fishermen now paying a reasonable amount to fish there now (M.Erdmann pers comm). Tourism is increasing in the park - at present this is restricted to liveaboards. Liveaboards pay the bagan fishermen to visit their bagans to see the whale sharks, and now also pay local communities.
Surveys
Theories

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Attached Components

Actors

Name:
Cenderwasih fishers
details
Past collaboration:
High (3)
Tribes and clans have a long history in the area
Costs of exit:
Yes
In general marine resources are important to local livelihoods (although the level of depedence is variable by village)
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
 
Interest heterogeneity:
Low (1)
Overall low, although different villages have different dependency on marine resources (versus farming), based on historically different tribes.
Leadership:
["Formal leader"]
Villages have elected leaders and head of tribes (kepala suku)
Leadership authority:
Medium (2)
Leaders are generally well respected but the youth do not always agree with formal leadership (socio-economic basline survey 2008)
Actor group trust:
High (3)
Tribes and clans have a long history in the area
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
Remote communication:
Missing
Leadership accountability:
High (3)
Leaders are elected, and the communitites will speak out if their leaders misbehave (socio-economic basline survey 2008)
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
Formal village leaders and informal village practices
Name:
Cenderwasih managers
details
Past collaboration:
Not Applicable
Costs of exit:
Not Applicable
Proportionality (of costs and benefits):
Not Applicable
Interest heterogeneity:
 
Leadership:
["Formal leader"]
Ultimately the central government
Leadership authority:
Not Applicable
Actor group trust:
Missing
Personal communication:
More than once a year (5)
Assumed to be coordination through reporting to central governement and WWF annual reports
Remote communication:
More than once a year (5)
Assumed to be coordination through reporting to central governement and WWF annual reports
Leadership accountability:
 
Actor group coordination:
Both formal and informal
Formal - MOU between WWF, State University of Papua and Wondama Bay Regency. Informal - collaborations between local governement/park authority and NGOs is mutually beneficial.

Governance Systems

Name:
Cenderwasih governance system
details
Type of formal governance:
System of laws
Coded as a system of laws from 2002 when the Park was formally designated (National Act No. 5 1990 (Ministry of Forestry)). A management plan came into effect in 2010-2029
End Date:
current
Begin date:
2002
When the park was officially designated.
Governance trigger:
 
Central Indonesian governement
Governance system description:
 
Governance scale:
State-based policy
Centralization:
Somewhat decentralized (2)
Policy in Indonesia shifted to be more decentralized (in 1999). In 2002, following a special autonomy law granted for Papua the right to resource management moved from national to local responsibility. In reality the park seems fairly centralised, with data and reports at central government level (from discussions with WWF)
Metric diversity:
 
MPA primary goal (in practice):
[]
NP Mission: •Strengthen the management of the region to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems •Strengthen protection, law enforcement and rehabilitation efforts preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem resources •Develop optimal utilization for the development of education, research, science, nature tourism and farming to support sustainable use for the improvement of the welfare of the community around the area. •Develop institutional systems and conservation partnerships in the management
MPA motivation:
["Ecological value"]
High ecological value - although it's true value (number of endemic species) wasn't fully realised to after designation.
MPA protection:
["Encompassing entire habitat"]
MPA internal natural boundaries:
Low (1)
There is no clear deliniation of boundaries- the MPA covers half of a large bay. No-take areas are fairly small but focus on reefs and islands, and so are probably likely visable
Distance to markets:
Between 10-100km (2)
Manokwari - capital of West Papua Province ~95km
MPA budget:
867245 $US
Management budget for 2006: 8097531154 Rupiah, converted using 2006 exchange rate = US$ 867,245. http://www.dephut.go.id/Halaman/PDF/BTCNTC/BTNTC_2006.pdf
PA IUCN strict zones:
7.8 %
Core zone: 0.046km2 Marine protection zone: 1100km2 (no-take = 1100.046km2 (other areas are general use 9000km2 and 3875km2 - total adds up to >than park area, so percentages taken of this area total = 13975))
MPA connectivity:
Partially (2)
The MPA is a large continuous shape, and it covers approximately half of the entire Bay area. The Bay is known to have limited connectivity outside of this region which has lead to the high number of endemics within the Bay. Teluk Cenderwasih also inlcudes the neighbouring land and so there is some connectivity between habitats and land-sea - I odn't think these were explicitly considered during the design of the MPA.
PA CAR principles:
Partially (2)
50% of critical habitats (mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, where nesting, fish spawning sites) designed to be the no take zone
MPA migratory benefit:
Missing
MPA migratory life history:
Nesting beaches for Green Turtle
Nesting habitat for the green and hawksbill turtle, and feeding area for leatherback and olive ridley turtle (Mangubhai, Erdmann et al. 2012)
MPA threats to migratory sp:
["Resource competition", "Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]
Major Threats to Cendrawasih turtles: predation (wild pigs, dogs, lizards), low hatching success, surrounding land use changes like mining and/or logging, lack of legal protection, overfishing, and reef damage. Climate change potential (Natural Capital Project)
MPA migratory threats and redux:
 
Social-ecological fit:
Low (1)
The zoning plan aims to protect key habitats and includes a mix of zones - however, it is very complex. The core zone is very minimal (0.046km2), and the majority is traditional or general use.
Governance knowledge use:
Not Applicable
MPA IUCN somewhat strict zones:
%
MPA IUCN sustainable zones :
92.9 %
traditional use (3875km2) and general use zones (9000km2) Total adds up to >than park area, so percentages taken of this area total = 13975
MPA threats:
Overfishing and destructuve fishing; land-based activities
Major Threats to Cendrawasih: reef/coral damage, overfishing, potential coastal development, boundary shuffling, recent political autonomy, weak fisheries policy & scientific knowledge. Threats to the Bird's Head area: Over fishing, destructive fishing Land-based activities: Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining; Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation; Poorly planned development; Transmigration from other provinces
Governance system spatial extent:
13852
The Cenderwasih Bay National Park is 13,852km2
Horizontal coordination:
 

Environmental Commons

Name:
Cenderwasih coral cover
details
Productivity:
Very productive (3)
Shallow water corals reefs are among the most productive ecosystems of the world
Commons spatial extent:
Missing
Environmental medium:
Oceanic
Commons heterogeneity:
High (3)
Corals cluster together in reefs, in a patchwork of reef and non-reef areas.
Intra annual predictability:
High (3)
Inter annual predictability:
High (3)
Technical substitute:
No
Can get artificial reef structures, but can't substitute coral
Commons boundaries:
 
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
But takes decades to renew because coral reefs are slow-growing
Commons accessibility:
Very accessible (3)
Generally very accessible, although some areas are further away and access can be prevented during bad weather
Name:
Cenderwasih target fish
details
Productivity:
Moderately Productive (2)
Most species would be moderate to highly productive. However, some can be very slow growing taking years to mature and reproduce hence the evaluation here that the resource is moderately productive.
Commons aggregation:
Guild
Multiple reef fish species
Biotic:
Yes
Commons unit size:
Small (2)
On average reef fish are comparatively small
Commons mobility:
Medium (2)
Varies by species. Compared to sessile resources, like coral or trees, and global migratory species or pollutants target fish are considered to be moderately mobile.
Commons spatial extent:
13852
13852km2 is the area of the Cenderwasih National Park. The entire Bay is much larger.
Environmental medium:
Oceanic
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
Distributed around all parts of the MPA in varying degrees
Intra annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Technical substitute:
No
Commons boundaries:
Somewhat unclear boundaries (2)
Some species are habitat-associated species and tend to mirror patterns in habitat cover. However, the resource is mobile horizontally and vertically and often crosses administrative boundaries (e.g., zoning) so is considered to have somewhat unclear boundaries.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
However, some can be very slow growing taking years to mature and reproduce
Commons accessibility:
Very accessible (3)
Reefs are fairly close to shore
Commons indicator:
["Status of species targeted by fisheries"]
Name:
Cenderwasih green turtle
details
Productivity:
Poorly productive (1)
Slow maturing, high infant mortality
Commons aggregation:
Population
Biotic:
Yes
Commons unit size:
Medium (3)
Average weight of adult individual 68-190Kg
Commons mobility:
High (3)
Migratory species
Commons spatial extent:
13852
13852km2 - coded here are size of Cenderwasih NP. But found across the entire info-pacific ocean
Environmental medium:
Oceanic
Commons heterogeneity:
Moderate (2)
Distributed in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Movements within the marine environment less well understood, but known to use a wide range of broadly separated localities and habitats during their lifetimes. But considered moderate as females return to same nesting beaches.
Intra annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Availability varies according to season, but these patterns can be predicted. Also population sizes don't fluctuate too much in relation environmental factors.
Inter annual predictability:
Moderate (2)
Migratory but likely to return to particular nesting beaches every couple of years. Long-living. But vulnerable to rapid declines year on year if threatened by human activity.
Technical substitute:
No
Commons boundaries:
Somewhat unclear boundaries (2)
Generally have known foraging and nesting grounds (The islands of Nusambier, Iwari, Kuwom, Matas and Wairundi and several mainland beaches have been recorded as turtle nesting beaches). But green turtles are a migratory species and found in tropical and subtropical waters so coded as somewhat unclear.
Commons renewability:
Renewable (1)
But slow to reproduce - low regeneration rates
Commons accessibility:
Very accessible (3)
Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest
Commons indicator:
["Status of highly migratory species"]

Component Interactions

Governance Interaction

Cenderwasih coral interaction

Governs:
Cenderwasih governance system (Governance System)
Commons User:
Cenderwasih fishers (Actor)
Governing Organization:
Cenderwasih managers (Actor)
Primary:
Cenderwasih coral cover (Environmental Common)

Governance Interaction

Cenderwasih fish interaction

Primary:
Cenderwasih target fish (Environmental Common)
Governs:
Cenderwasih governance system (Governance System)
Commons User:
Cenderwasih fishers (Actor)
Governing Organization:
Cenderwasih managers (Actor)